How can I create internal computer parts

How is a computer structured?

Even if most computers look different and the development of computer technology advances at a rapid pace, every computer has the same main elements that were described by John von Neumann in 1946. Without this, no PC would be functional.

The main elements are supplemented by other components. These additional components, also known as peripherals, make the main difference in the structure of the various computers. Of course, the individual computers also differ in terms of performance indicators, but this is a different topic.

In this article I would like to show you how a computer is constructed and which important components of a computer can be distinguished. For each of the components, you will find a brief description here.

The structure

  1. monitor
  2. Mainboard (also called motherboard or main board)
  3. CPU / processor
  4. random access memory
  5. PCI slots for graphics or sound cards
  6. power adapter
  7. Optical drive (DVD drive, DVD burner, etc.)
  8. hard disk
  9. mouse
  10. keyboard

The main elements of a computer

The minimum elements a computer must consist of are

  • Mainboard
  • CPU / processor
  • random access memory
  • power adapter
  • hard disk

A computer would already be able to run with these main elements. Of course, you can't do a lot with it, because you can't make any entries and no outputs are generated, but it would already start.


The mainboard is the main board of the computer. The most important components (CPU, main memory, PCI plug-in cards) are mounted on this and connected to one another via the so-called bus. In addition, hard drives, optical drives and any other peripherals are connected to the motherboard.

CPU / processor

The processor or CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the heart of the computer. You could also say that it is the brain of every computer. The CPU controls the other components of a computer and performs the arithmetic operations at the same time.

The processor must always be bought to match the respective mainboard and its performance is given in Hertz.

random access memory

The data generated during the runtime of a program are temporarily stored in the main memory. Therefore, the main memory is one of the main elements of a computer, as it would not be able to run without the main memory.

The working memory is also known as RAM (Random Access Memory) and if you like to play the latest computer games or frequently edit photos or videos, your computer should have a lot of working memory.

power adapter

The power supply provides power to all components of a computer. Power supplies are offered with different capacities and the housing can be of different sizes. You should therefore pay attention to whether the power supply fits into the housing of the computer, whether it provides the necessary connections and whether the power of the power supply is sufficient for the components installed in the computer.

You can use a so-called PSU calculator to determine whether the power supply unit provides enough power.

hard disk

Every PC requires at least one hard drive, but several can also be installed. The operating system is installed on this hard drive and of course your important personal data is also stored there. It is particularly important to protect them from misuse by malware.

Other components of a computer

The components presented so far belong to the minimum equipment of every computer. But you cannot make any inputs or outputs yet. Therefore, you should also equip your computer with the following peripheral devices.


The monitor is required for the graphic output of information from a computer. Virtually every computer has a monitor, and LCD / LED monitors are the most popular today.

When purchasing a new PuTTY alternative monitor, you should pay particular attention to power consumption and response times. If the response time is too long, unpleasant misrepresentations can occur when changing images quickly.

Another output device that you will often find near a computer is the printer.

PCI slots

A graphics or sound card can be connected to the PC via the PCI slots. Usually these are not absolutely necessary, as the CPU also has a graphics chip and the mainboard has a sound chip. However, you will get the better results by using additional cards that are specialized for the respective task.

If you work a lot with graphic applications or if you attach great importance to good sound, there is no way around installing a graphics and sound card.

Optical drives

There is a lot you can download from the Internet these days, but every computer should have at least one optical drive. This is particularly useful when installing the operating system or when making backup copies.

Optical drives include:

  • DVD drive
  • DVD burner
  • Blu-ray drive
  • Blu-ray burner

mouse and keyboard

The mouse and the keyboard are among the most important input devices. We use these two devices to make most of the inputs our computer is supposed to process. We use this to control our programs.

Other input devices would be e.g .:

How is a computer structured? - The bottom line

The components mentioned are the most important parts of a computer. You could possibly do without an optical drive. You should find the other components on every PC.

I hope I was able to answer the question "How is a computer built". If not, leave your questions, requests or suggestions in the comments.

Category: General