Which Indian states were formed on languages

1. Brief overview of the language

1.1 How the language is called

Français, la langue française

Français - French
la langue française - the French language
Je parle français. - I speak French.

1.2 Where French is spoken: key data on speakers and language

Around 264 million people worldwide speak or learn French today.

The French-speaking area in Europe includes France and parts of the neighboring countries Switzerland (Suisse romande) and Belgium (Wallonia) as well as the Aosta Valley (Italy). French is also the official language in Monaco and Luxembourg, and it is spoken by parts of the population of Andorra. This gives a total of 55 million speakers.

In addition to French, numerous regional languages ​​are also present in France, including Alsatian, Occitan, Corsican, Breton, Catalan and Basque, as well as the languages ​​of migrants, especially those from North and West Africa.

Furthermore, French is spoken as the mother tongue in the Canadian province of Québec and is the official language nationwide (6.5 million speakers). Outside of Québec, there are French-speaking populations in Ontario, Alberta, southern Manitoba, north and southeast of New Brunswick, and southwest Nova Scotia; Acadian French is predominant in the last two states.

French is also spoken in smaller parts of the USA, especially in Louisiana (0.2 million) and Haiti (7 million speakers of Haitian Creole and French).

Likewise, the DOM (Départements d'Outre Mer, overseas departments) - South American Guyana, the Caribbean islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe and the island of La Réunion in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar - as well as the TOM (Territoires d'Outre Mer, overseas territories) such as . B. French Polynesia remained francophone.

In 22 African countries and on the eastern islands of Madagascar, Mauritius and the Seychelles, i.e. former French or Belgian colonies, French has the status of an official language. The number of Africans who can communicate in French is estimated at 130 million, many of them native speakers.

A significant number of speakers can also be found in Mauritania, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Lebanon and the Channel Islands; French is widespread as a second language in Arabic-speaking North Africa.

Various French-influenced Creole languages ​​have developed in some of the former colonial areas. However, because of their structure, which differs greatly from standard French, they are usually viewed as a separate language group.

In addition to German and English, French is the most important official and working language of the European Union. France is a founding member of the Union, many EU institutions are located in Brussels, Strasbourg and Luxembourg, where French is also or predominantly spoken. French is the traditional internal working language of the European Court of Justice.

1.3 History of the language

Since around 700 BC BC Gaul was settled by Celtic ethnic groups. They introduced Gallic, a Celtic language, in the area that essentially corresponds to what is now France, Belgium and northern Italy. Some words of Gallic origin are still present in French today, e.g. mouton - sheep, charrue - plow.

After the conquests of Julius Caesar in the 1st century BC. Latin gradually became the language of Gaul (at this time see also "Asterix, the Gaul"). From the 2nd to the 6th centuries AD, the Latin spoken by the Gauls was influenced by the Germanic invaders coming from the northwest, especially the Franks, who gave the language its name. Within the Romance languages, French is the one with the most Germanic influences.

The Council of Tours in 813 established two languages: Classical Latin and Romansh, which was understandable to the people and in which from then on sermons were given in the churches. Different dialects emerge, which - depending on the pronunciation of the word Ja (oïl or oc) - are summarized in the north as "Langues d’Oïl" and in the south as "Langues d’Oc".

The Strasbourg oaths, which seal the alliance between the grandchildren of Charlemagne, are written in French and German and are considered to be the first surviving text in French.

In the Middle Ages, Paris gradually emerged as the political center of France. The local dialect, French, then strongly pushes back the other dialects. When William the Conqueror ascended the English throne in 1066, Norman French became the language of the English nobility for two centuries and had a lasting influence on the English language.

In 1539 King Francis I issued the edict of Villers-Cotterêts, which made French the official language instead of Latin. The next phase in the development of French into the standard language is the codification: French is the most strictly codified of the European languages. In 1635 Cardinal Richelieu founded the Académie française, whose mission is to “give the French language not only elegance, but also to enable them to deal with all the arts and sciences ”. Their program was "the production of a dictionary, a grammar, a rhetoric and a poetry of the French language". Richelieu's intention was not so much to promote the functional efficiency of the language, but rather to strengthen the prestige of French at the European level.

Contrary to proposals to rationalize the spelling, the academy sticks to the etymological tradition. There have been only a few minor spelling changes since then. According to the linguist A. Lodge, the Academy's concern was to differentiate the language of the ruling elite from that of the people. The state is also interested in the question of linguistic unity in its political unification efforts.

In the eighteenth century the ideology of the standard language was reinforced by myths such as that of the particular clarity and logic of French. In the texts of Molière the contempt for provincial and vernacular language is expressed. With French taking on the status of an international diplomatic language, it soon became a model for other European languages. French is also spoken at European royal courts.

The French Revolution, too, paradoxically tried to impose a single language in the name of democracy and equality, that which the ancien regime formed as a mark of social differences. Political centralization intensified in the 19th century. The state's policy towards regional languages ​​(patois) corresponds to linguistic assimilation by a powerful administrative machine. The introduction of general conscription also contributes to the standardization of the language. The establishment of community schools by Jules Ferry in 1882 and the development of the means of transport, especially the railway network, strengthened French as the standard language.

The First World War, in the course of which the regional military units were gradually disbanded, followed by the spread of radio and television in particular, largely displaced the patois. Regional and minority languages ​​in France have been experiencing a certain revitalization since the 1970s; however, France still refuses to ratify the European Charter for the Protection of Regional and Minority Languages. As a result of the colonization of large parts of West Africa, parts of North America and Indochina, French has spread worldwide as the official language or lingua franca.

Former French possessions, colonies and protectorates

French colonial empire (light blue: first acquisitions in the 16th century, dark blue: acquisitions up to 1920)

1.4 Variants of French

Swiss French
By and large, Swiss French is the same as standard French.

The French spoken in French-speaking Switzerland has some peculiarities in pronunciation and vocabulary (also regionally). In addition to the archaisms derived from the patois, many Germanisms are also known, which are increasingly used, especially along the language borders:
vattre et mouttre instead of père et mère; poutzer instead of nettoyer; Bacon instead of lard or joke instead of blague.

Belgian French
Belgian French is an umbrella term for the various dialects of the French language in Belgium. The Belgicisms include some Nederlandisms, e.g. B. babeler = causer, see ndl. babbelen (Eng. chatter, chat) or the expression ça cloppe = ça colle, cf. ndl. dat klopt (dt. that's right). La drache is a word for rain that is only used in Belgium.

Canadian French
Français québécois is the variant of French spoken in Québec, Ontario and the western provinces of Canada. Due to its spatial isolation from the rest of Francophonie, Canadian or Quebec French, like the other variants of French in North America, have clear differences compared to French in Europe, which are particularly pronounced in the colloquial language.

Canadian French has retained a number of archaisms:

French voiture (car): cnd. char; French casserole (saucepan): cnd. chaudron; French pull-over: cnd. chandail.

Some French words have been recreated with the aim of avoiding anglicisms:
engl. shopping, cnd. magasinage.

Anglicisms in French France were "French":
frz. vol charter (charter flight): cnd. vol nolisé; French week-end: cnd. fin de semaine; French ferry (ferry); cnd. traverse.

Other words, on the other hand, were taken from English or formed analogously to English:
French dentifrice (toothpaste); engl. tooth paste; cnd. pâte à dents; French annuler; closely. cancel; cnd. canceller.

Acadian French, which is spoken in the maritime provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and in a small part of Québec's Gaspésie, as well as Newfoundland French, which is spoken on the west coast ( Port-au-Port Peninsula) Newfoundland is spoken.

1.5 The spread of French: The International Organization of the Francophonie

The entirety of the French-speaking countries, i.e. the French-speaking area, is referred to as Francophonie. This includes states in which French is the official language, states in which French is the first language, and states in which French is the language of instruction. The term “Francophonie” was used by geographers as early as 1871, and the word was “invented” by Onésime Reclus (1837–1916).

The "Organization internationale de la Francophonie" (OIF) includes France, a group of former French colonies that today still maintain more or less cultural, linguistic and at least political contact with the former colonial power, and other states. Today, in addition to the cultural alliance, it is also a political organization.

The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs' policy to promote the French language is based on a network of 151 French centers and cultural institutes and 283 Alliances Françaises supported by the Ministry, 800 local experts and numerous local and international partnerships. It is aimed at constantly new groups of the population whose “demand” for French varies greatly in view of the highly competitive language market.

The Agence universitaire de la Francophonie (University Agency of the Francophonie) coordinates the exchange between 526 universities, institutes and research centers. TV5, a general French-speaking television channel, is received in more than 130 million households around the world; there is also the news channel France24, which can be received in both French and English.
See: http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/de/

Countries united in the Francophonie

Europe
France, Belgium, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Monaco, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Moldova, Romania
Associate members: Albania, Andorra
Observing function: Austria, Armenia, Croatia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Georgia

North and South America
Canada: Nouveau-Brunswick, Québec. Observer, possibly candidate for membership: Ontario
Antilles: Dominica, Haiti, St. Lucia
French overseas territories: Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana, St. Pierre-et-Miquelon

Africa
Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Togo, Tunisia

Asia and Oceania
Cambodia, Laos, Lebanon, Vietnam; Vanuatu

1.6 Language bridges French - German

Numerous French words and expressions are used in German, especially in Viennese:

Déjà-vuBlind (French jealousy)cretin
Faux pasMishapjournal
chauffeurRendez-vous (French also appointment)Garage (French male)
pavementWalletManege (French male)
hair stylistvis-a-vispardon
potpourrià la ... (e.g. carte)Bon mot
Armchaircroupiersweet

 

In Vienna: Pompfineberer - pompes funèbres, Lavour - lavoir, Bagage (luggage)
Germanized: hairdresser, menu, kujonieren (from couilloner - to trick), roller blind, average
In French there is the word "le vasistas" - the skylight window

Small list of "false friends" French - German

French wordalso means)resembles the GermanFrench translation of the German word
batteryDrums, batterybatterypile
bureaualso: deskofficebureau
chancealso: luckchancechance
compasCirclecompassboussole
costume(Men's) suit, costumecostumetailleur
délicatesseSensitivitydelicacyplat exquisite
dossieralso: backrestDossier (act)dossier
budgetState, statebudgetbudget
large, largefatlargegrand
gym nosegymhigh schoollycée
hôtel de villetown hallurban hotelhôtel municipal
humeurMood, moodhumorhumor
ignoreralso: don't know, knowto ignoreignorer
infusionInfusion, herbal teainfusionperfusion
moussefoamMuscompote, jam
negligecareless, messyNegligedéshabillé
noblealso: nobleNobelchic, classy
parolewordPasswordle mot d'ordre
postageport wine(Letter) postageport
professoralso: teacher, teacherprofessorprofessor (universitaire)
napkinalso: towel, foldernapkinserviette (de table)
vaudevilleSelection; diversityVarieté (theater)music hall; spectacle de variétés

1.7 Name and salutation

Since 2005, children in France have been able to take their father's, mother's surname or a combination of both.

Personal names are given as in German.

Salutation: Monsieur (Lord), Madame (Woman), out of date: Mademoiselle (Miss)
In French, a distinction is made between 'du' (tu) and the polite form, Ihr '(vous).
The use of the two forms largely corresponds to that of German.

From the collection "Les regrets" by Joachim du Bellay (1522-1560)

Heureux qui, comme Ulysse, a fait un beau voyage

Heureux qui, comme Ulysse, a fait un beau voyage,
Ou comme cestuy-là qui conquit la toison,
Et puis est retourné, plein d'usage et raison,
Vivre entre ses parents le reste de son âge!

Quand reverrai-je, hélas, de mon petit village
Fumer la cheminée, et in spring season
Reverrai-je le clos de ma pauvre maison,
Qui m'est une province, et beaucoup davantage?

Plus me plaît le séjour qu'ont bâti mes aïeux,
Que des palais Romains le front audacieux,
Plus que le marbre dur me plaît l'ardoise fine:

Plus mon Loir gaulois, que le Tibre latin,
Plus mon petit Liré, que le mont Palatine,
Et plus que l'air marin la doulceur angevine.