Why is Labrador included in Newfoundland

History of Newfoundland and Labrador

The province of Newfoundland and Labrador in Canada

Human traces in the mainland part of the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador reach at least into the 8th millennium BC. BC, on Newfoundland until the 5th millennium. On the mainland Inuit, who moved far south with the cold spells, and Innu played the most important roles, on Newfoundland these were Mi'kmaq and Beothuk, and at times also Inuit. In Newfoundland, the study by Bell and Renouf in 2003 showed that due to the sea level that has risen since then, only artefacts can be hoped for in the north of the island, as the majority of the potential sites in the south and east are now under water. This would explain why there were no finds on the coastal fringe before 5500 BP, i.e. where the vast majority of the previous finds were made. The inland was still under an ice sheet that was only slowly melting away.

Around 1000 Scandinavians settled near L’Anse aux Meadows on Newfoundland. From the end of the 15th century Europeans appeared again, the oldest evidence points to Giovanni Caboto, who sailed the waters around Newfoundland and Labrador in 1497 and in Canada as John Cabot is known. The Innu traded with the fishermen and whalers who were now numerous. At the end of the 18th century there was still a dispute over fishing rights between British and American fishermen, who were excluded between 1820 and 1870. After Canada was founded in 1867, Newfoundland was the only colony to opt out of the Anschluss in 1869 and remained a British crown colony.

Newfoundland Dominion of Newfoundland) existed from 1907 to 1934 as an independent Dominion within the British Empire. For the period from 1919 to 1934, it can be considered the third state in North America alongside the USA and Canada. With Australia and New Zealand, Newfoundland received its Dominion status in 1907. These Dominions have been considered independent states since the League of Nations was founded. The capital of Dominion and Province was the city of St. John's.

Early history

L'Anse Amour in Labrador: cairn grave of an approximately 12 year old child from around 5500 BC It has a diameter of 8 m. The child was given a flute made of bird bones, a bone pestle for crushing hematite, the oldest point of a harpoon in North America and a projectile point made of chert. His body was strewn with red ocher made of hematite and covered with a flat stone. As part of the burial and the construction of the hill, on which the group of hunters must have worked for about a week, food was prepared around the pit.

The first inhabitants of Labrador were probably the maritime archaic Indians from around 8000 BC. Excavations on the east coast of Labrador are dated to approx. 5500 BC. Dated. It is the oldest grave in Canada. It is located in L’Anse Amour, just across the northern tip of Newfoundland. It contained a twelve-year-old child who had been given a flute made of bird bones as part of grave goods, a pestle made of bone for crushing hematite, the oldest known point of a harpoon in North America, also made of bone, and a projectile point made of chert.

At the latest by 4000 BC. These Indians also came to the Newfoundland coast. Between 3500 and 2500 BC The "Intermediate Indians" who also lived in the interior of the country probably developed from this. In Port au Choix on the west coast of Newfoundland, Indian cemeteries from different eras have been excavated for a long time; There were over 100 graves from around 2000 to 1500 BC. Around 4000 BC Until 2000 BC The pre-Dorset Inuit displaced or took over the settlement areas of the archaic Indians. Around 2400 BC Dorset Inuit came to Labrador and Newfoundland from the northeast. However, they disappeared from the island for unknown reasons. Around 1400 BC The third wave of Inuit, the Thule, came from Alaska. They spread to Greenland. From around 1700 BC. There were various distributions of Indians that went up to modern times. The main groups are the Beothuk and the Mi'kmaq. The last beothuk, shawnadithit, died in St. John's in 1829. The Mi'kmaq are the last "Native Indians" in Newfoundland; Inuit, descendants of the Thule-Inuit, and Innu live in Labrador.

On the mainland part of the province of Newfound and Labrador, human settlement dates back at least to the 8th millennium. Under the direction of Stephen Loring, artifacts related to the Innu up to 7,200 years old have been excavated and dated. Most of the finds come from the area around the caribou hunt, on which the regional culture depended from the beginning. These include stone axes, so-called boulder pit cache sites, but also hunting tools such as stone blades from spears (from the Point Revenge and Intermediate Periods, approx. 500 BC, but also those from around 3000 BC), scratches for the caribou skin made of kamestastine (approx. 3000 BC), one of the oldest sites. The oldest find was made at the north end of the Kamestastin Narrows, a blade that dates back to 5200 BC. Is dated. The site of Pess is similarly old Tshumushumapeu Complex belongs (approx. 5000 BC), the quartzite blades of which may be even older.

The earliest phase is called the early Maritime Archaic inscribed (approx. 6000-2500 BC).1 The first inhabitants hunted walruses and seals, as well as fish and game, especially caribou. Quartz and quartzite blades as well as triangular blades are characteristic of this early phase, plus small round scratches, stone axes and chisels. Burial sites were found on the coast of Labrador and Quebec, the Strait of Belle Isle on Blanc Sablon and at L’Anse Amour. There the skeleton of a 12-year-old boy was found lying on his stomach, with a large rock on his back, tools and a flute (approx. 5500 BC). This early phase can also be detected in the north of Labrador, in Nain.

It was followed by the late Maritime Archaic (approx. 2500–1500 BC). Significantly more numerous sites between Petit Mecatina and Blanc Sablon belong to this period. The tools mentioned are still characteristic here, but there is also a type of stone that is only found in the north of Labrador, the so-called Ramah Chert, a translucent type of rock. Now mounds no longer prevailed, but cemeteries containing red ocher and broken tools - possibly to release their “ghosts”. Several families already lived in long houses. Since life was evidently different from that of neighboring areas, such as Labrador, we speak of the Mecatina complex here.

Between 500 BC Chr. And the birth of Christ there was the strongest cooling in the post-ice age, so that Inuit, who led an appropriately adapted life, moved to the south of Labrador. Some of their descendants even traded with the Basques of Mécatina, who went whaling there, until the 18th century. Its southernmost point was the area around Hopedale in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. In this culture, the as microblades designated tiny stone blades. Rather, they lived in tent houses lit with the fat of mammals, not wood. Their culture was superseded by the Dorset culture for about 500 years. But their influence did not extend westward beyond St. Paul. This culture died out in southern Labrador around 500, but persisted in the north until around 1300, when it was ousted or absorbed by today's Inuit.

The late one Indian Period or Innu culture began around 2000 years ago. The area of ​​northern Quebec, Labrador and Newfoundland now seems to have been a relatively unified cultural area again. During this period, the Inuit are difficult to pin down because they have adapted their lifestyle, but they appear to have cooperated with the Basque whalers arriving in the 16th century.


The Vinland Mystery
National Film Board of Canada

It is certain that Scandinavians like (Bjarni Herjólfsson, Thorvald Eiriksson, Leif Eriksson) came to Newfoundland and Labrador on several trips around 1000 AD. In 1961, Helge Ingstad discovered a settlement in the far north of the island. The L’Anse aux Meadows site is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

On June 24, 1497, Giovanni Caboto, anglicized John Cabot, an Italian navigator in the service of the English king who came from Bristol, entered the American mainland in Labrador, after he had landed on Newfoundland on the same voyage. The name Newfoundland is derived from Cabot's designation newe founde islande from - "newly found island".

Between around 1530 and 1750, Basque ships regularly sailed into the fish and whale fishing areas off the east coast. The Innu traded with them, especially in Brest (Old Fort) and Grand Bay. From the perspective of the Basques working on the coast, the Innu came from the mountains. Hence its name comes from Montagnais probably from this early encounter phase. They also supported the Basques with their fish processing, for which they received rusks, bread and cider. The Inuit, on the other hand, fought the Basques and attacked them with bows and arrows.

Two sites, Mecatina and Harve Boulet, date from the 17th and 18th centuries. Exclusively whalers already lived here, and at that time, especially in Mecatina, there was also trade with the Inuit. In addition to the Basques, fishermen also came from Brittany and England. English fishing had increased between 1500 and 1585, but Iberian fishermen predominated. In the beginning one also traded with the Indians, mainly to get furs.

George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, failed with his colony founded in 1621 on Newfoundland.

In 1583 the London and Bristol Company the crown to ensure settlement and the mining of iron ore. But George Calvert, leader of the colony near Ferryland in the east of the Avalon Peninsula, came under "suspicion of papism". This colony with around 100 residents was founded in 1621. But it failed because of the climate and French attacks. Calvert was only successful in Maryland. In Ferryland it was David Kirke who set the tone, which was not suspicious. But in 1634 the settlement permit was revoked under the influence of the fishermen. The native Beothuk were drawn into the brutal war between fishermen and settlers and were exterminated in the process.

Initially, the first arriving captain of the season prepared the drying rods on the bank, but this took over in the 17th century Commodore of the English fleet. This office became a kind of governor's rule. A triangular trade developed between New England, which delivered grain, wood, meat and fish to southern Europe, and from where wine and fruit, cloth and silk, spices and cheese went to England. From there, English goods went to Newfoundland. This not only tied trade to extensive commodity cycles, but also separated trade and fishing. The large cargo ships were unsuitable for fishing. Seasonal fishing was increasingly being replaced by local fishing, which benefited the settlements. 1699 allowed the Newfoundland Act fishing by settlers.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the French overran the settlements in 1696 and 1705. With the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 and with the end of the Seven Years War in 1763, the island finally came to Great Britain. Still, the fish trade with England became insignificant compared to that with New England, which in turn supplied Newfoundland with grain.2. If in 1716 only a third of the fishing was carried out by settlers, in 1764 it was already two thirds, by 1800 over 90%. The marketing was done by New Englanders. Especially fish was exported from Newfoundland to Europe, New England, the West Indies. Until it joined Canada in 1949, economic ties with the hinterland were very weak. In contrast, the attachment to that was British Empire very strong, in whose interests intra-imperial trade was.

Basque and French fishing grounds around Newfound in the 16th and 17th centuries

Until around 1790 the fishermen of Europe regularly moved offshore without staying in the country. French ships caught throughout the area between Newfoundland, the Strait of Belle Isle all the way to Nova Scotia. Important centers were on the coasts and on the Gaspé Peninsula. The Portuguese fished mainly off southeast Newfoundland, the English around the Avalon Peninsula and in the waters of New England. French competition largely ended in 1713, while English and New England fishermen fought each other.

American independence initially gave the fishing industry a strong impetus - even if the first time was catastrophic - because England was now dependent on Newfoundland. Apart from a crisis around 1815 to 1830, the fish export prospered, which was joined by an expanding shipbuilding industry. At the same time, the Napoleonic Wars and the war against the United States from 1812 to 1814 finally ended the Europeans' seasonal fishing. The fishing and shipbuilding industries were increasingly concentrated around St. John's.

Between 1785 and 1815, the island's population quadrupled from around 10,000 to 40,000. In 1824 the island received the status of a colony with a governor, and in 1832 a representation. However, compared to other regions, the economy continued to decline. Fluctuations in market prices made people extremely vulnerable, raw materials became increasingly cheaper, and after 1900 Newfoundland even lost its independence.

In 1767 the frigate H.M. Merlin in Brador Harbor orders to go to Gros Mecantina because of seal-catching disputes to Fort St. Augustine and Baie-de Shecatica (Schicattakawica).

When the US was recognized in 1783, its fishermen were allowed to catch off Newfoundland, but they were not allowed to go ashore. Nevertheless, New Jersey fishermen established a position at Blanc Sablon. In 1804 1,400 American ships fished in the region off eastern Canada. After the war between the USA and Great Britain from 1812 to 1814 there was an economic crisis, in the course of which Newfoundland went hungry in 1817, followed by bankruptcy three years later New Labrador Companythat had monopolized trade. Robertson from La Tabatiere, Kennedy from St. Augustine and Jones from Bradore use the space that is now free. The Americans did not regain full fishing rights until 1871.

The Hudson’s Bay Company was also represented in the region with trading posts, as had been on the Northwest River near Sheshatshiu since 1836. In 1840 the Reverend tried. Edward Cusack set up a congregation, but this did not succeed until 1863, with a chapel on St. Augustine's River. As early as 1858, C. C Carpenter established a mission and a school on Caribou Island. By 1865 at the latest, J. Wainwright evangelized on the coast.

Refusal to join Canada

Canada has been a self-governing Dominion since 1867, the first of its kind (see History of Canada). The Dominion was formed from the previous British Crown Colony of Canada (with Upper Canada-Ontario and Lower Canada-Québec), as well as from the colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Originally it was planned to include the crown colony of Newfoundland as the fifth province in the Canadian Federation, but the Newfoundland traders and bankers had little interest in it: Canada closed itself to a protectionist economic policy behind high tariffs, while Newfoundland from cod exports to Great Britain, Europe and the USA lived. The Catholic-Irish part of the population, about half of the population, was largely against the merger with the English and Protestant-dominated Canada and wanted independence. As early as 1854, the British Crown granted Newfoundland the status of responsible self-government with a self-elected island parliament. Two years after Canada's independence, the self-elected parliament voted against unification with Canada in 1869, and Newfoundland initially remained a crown colony.

In June 1882 the first railway line was built across the island. However, the first passengers were not transported by train until 1898, which was called the "Newfie Bullet" because of its speed. Until the completion of the Trans-Canada Highway in 1967, the railway line was the only overland connection from Port aux Basques in the west to the provincial capital St. John's in the east. The railway was finally shut down on September 1, 1988, after the federal government had promised the further expansion of the road. The entire route has been made accessible to tourism by putting it in the Newfoundland T'Railway Provincial Park converted.

Obtaining Dominion status, World War I

Telling Times (Newfoundland in World War I)

After a depression in the 1890s, the situation improved with the opening of the railway line from St. John’s to Port aux Basques in 1898. At the same time as New Zealand, Newfoundland gained Dominion status on September 26, 1907.There was initially a conflict over the border between Canada and Newfoundland on the Labrador Peninsula, which could not be resolved until 1927 by a neutral British commission - albeit against the protest of the Canadian province of Québec, at whose expense the new border was drawn.

The prosperity of the economy, which has persisted since 1900, was increased by the First World War, in which a Newfoundland regiment fought on the side of the Allies. However, almost the entire regiment was wiped out on the first day of the Battle of the Somme in 1916. Of the 801 men, 732 were killed, injured or missing within half an hour on July 1, 1916. This was the largest daily loss in all of Canadian war history. It wasn't until two weeks later that the news reached Newfoundland. Overall, every third Newfoundland dog between 19 and 35 volunteered.

For a long time the Innu area remained outside the Indian policy customary in Canada. In the absence of development, the nomadic groups were practically intangible and were considered to be far removed from civilization. There was no money in circulation with them, the hunt provides what is necessary for life.3 However, the Spanish flu reached the region in 1918, with some Inuit villages losing up to three quarters of their inhabitants.4 How badly the Innu were affected is unclear. The huge area inhabited by the Innu (Nutshimiu Innut - Innu-Land) was long considered almost uninhabited and economically of little interest. In 1927 the eastern part of the province of Newfoundland was added, the rest went to Québec. This divided the Innu area into two provinces. Much more serious, however, was that the Crown Land was formally ceded by Great Britain to Canada in 1949 and the Innu lost their status as Indians - and with it all support. This was all the more serious as the fur industry collapsed with the global economic crisis and the caribou herds collapsed. This deprived the Innu of any economic basis.

Political and economic decline

Twice Premier in Twilight: Richard Squires

A drastic economic and, as a result, political decline began in the 1920s. In 1923, Prime Minister Richard Squires was arrested for corruption. He was replaced by two business-friendly governments under two cousins, Walter Monroe and Frederick Alderdice, who made themselves so unpopular that Squires returned to the government in 1928. Soon the Great Depression exacerbated the already existing problems and poverty became rampant. On April 5, 1932, a violent demonstration of 10,000 people broke out in front of the government building and Squires fled. The next government, again under Alderdice, asked the British government to take over until Newfoundland's economy stabilized. The Royal Commission subsequently appointed concluded that Newfoundland's political culture suffered from inherent corruption and that the economic outlook was bleak. She recommended that the government dissolve itself. Alderdice followed this recommendation in December 1933, and a British commission temporarily took over the affairs of state. On February 16, 1934, Alderdice signed an edict repealing the constitution and Newfoundland reverted to crown colony status. Many Newfoundlanders viewed the subsequent government as a dictatorship because of the repeal of the constitution.

World War II and Union plans with the United States

Territorial division of Canada from 1927 to 1949. Newfoundland and Labrador are shown in gray.

The Great Depression lasted in Newfoundland until the outbreak of World War II. After the fall of France in 1940, Great Britain transferred the military defense of Newfoundland to Canada. When the US established military bases at several locations, the country's gross domestic product doubled almost overnight. American money poured into the country, and now Newfoundland could even issue bonds to Britain to help bear the burden of war. Newfoundland women married by the thousands of US Army soldiers, and the sudden prosperity was so impressive for the poor country that a party was formed that Economic Union Partywho wanted a union with the US, at least an economic union. This party was very influential towards the end of the war, but Great Britain, under Canadian influence, refused to hold a referendum on the union with the USA. The US State Department was reluctant to cooperate with the Unionists out of political considerations for the war allies Great Britain and Canada.

Association with Canada

After the Second World War, the first elections since 1932 took place in 1946. The newly elected assembly decided to hold a referendum on the future of Newfoundland. Three positions were formed: 1. To maintain Newfoundland's current status as a British crown colony and to anchor it in a new constitution, 2. Independence as a Dominion, 3. Union with Canada. The third option, uniting with Canada, was not originally envisaged, but was finally included as a third option after the supporter of this position, Joseph (Joey) Smallwood, had collected signatures. Great Britain supported this third option and stated that it would no longer provide financial support to Newfoundland in the future. In the first vote on June 3, 1948, none of the proposals received an absolute majority: 45% voted for renewed independence as a Dominion, 41% for unification with Canada, and only 14% for maintaining the current status as a British colony.

Newfoundland one dollar note from 1920

In the campaign that followed, religious questions began to poison the atmosphere: the Catholic bishops were seen as opponents of the predominantly Anglican-Protestant Canada, and rumors arose that they had recommended the Catholic faithful (around a third of the population) not to join to vote. That was only partially correct. Michael O'Reilly, the bishop of St. George on the west coast, and his congregation were strong supporters of the union with Canada. In response to the rumors, the Protestant Orange Order issued a strongly anti-Catholic election recommendation for joining Canada. In the runoff election on July 22, 1948, 48% of voters then voted for independence, 52% for unification with Canada. This took place on March 31, 1949, and Joseph Smallwood became the first premier of the now Canadian province of Newfoundland.

Innu and Inuit

Developments on the mainland were completely different. In the 1950s, infrastructure began to be built with the construction of a railway line, which was completed in 1957. There was also an unpaved road to Goose Bay by 1992. In 1957 a Catholic mission was established in Sheshatshiu. The government and the mission put pressure on the Innu, some of whom live in tents, to settle down. The last resettlement was carried out in the winter of 1971/72, to Pukuatshipit. This ended the nomadic era5, the children were made compulsory.

Some Innu were now working in the nickel and copper mines of Utshimassits and the copper mine northwest of Sept-Iles. One reason for the partial continuation of the traditional way of life was the low number of job opportunities and the perceived dependence on the welfare state as humiliating. But the government undermined this lifestyle with strict hunting bans. A hospital was built in Sheshatshiu and with it a limited supply structure, but at the same time the deportation of the Innu allowed the construction of the Churchill Falls Hydroelectric Project - on the Innu land, without consultation, without participation. In the mid-1990s, the disintegration of the Innu company was in full swing. Underemployment, addiction, powerlessness and degraded self-esteem, as well as being alien in one's own country, were the basis for drug addiction, violence and a high suicide rate that attracted attention in the Canadian press for several years.

In 1994 the conflict threatened to escalate. A group of Innu women had evicted a Canadian judge and his police escort. Now the Innu Nation feared attacks by the federal police on the Davis Inlet reservation in Newfoundland Labrador. Outside help was sought for arbitration and Peace Brigades International was turned to. This was a one-time event in that this organization was otherwise only available in countries of the so-called Third World occurred. They succeeded in provisional arbitration, but in August the government threatened to send the federal police to the reservation. Again the Peace Brigade succeeded in de-escalating, although the Innu were already preparing for a defense.

In 1996, of the approximately 1,000 inhabitants of the largest village, Sheshatshiu, only 135 were employed and the median income was $ 11,452. In 1997 the Queen of England visited the village and received a letter from the Innu summarizing the complaints. The Innu resistance was now focused on the bare essentials. The air force base in Goose Bay, which had existed since the Second World War, had meanwhile been expanded to lend the supposedly empty hinterland to NATO partners for training purposes. The Bundeswehr also practiced low-level flights and bombing there. In 1994, Inuit, one of their leaders was Elizabeth Penashue, occupied such an area at Minipi.6

A huge $ 2.9 billion mining project by Inco (Toronto) was planned in the mid-1990s, but the construction of the nickel mine in Voisey's Bay, which is also part of Newfoundland, came about without any substantial involvement from Innu. Instead, they mainly suffered the ecological disadvantages, while the metals are shipped to Argentia in eastern Newfoundland and processed there. The up to 550 men in the mine are still flown in. The mine has its own runway, which is approached 4 to 6 times a week.7 However, if they are sufficiently qualified, the Innu should be given preference in the allocation of positions. In cooperation with the Inco Memorial University In addition, a training and innovation center was built, which was completed in 2004.

In this situation, the Tshikapisk Foundation founded, a foundation that is committed to cultural revitalization and its own economic basis, especially for the young Innu. 1999 started in the only institution of higher education, the Labrador College, an attempt to process and convey the culture and history of the Innu. A few years later it went out Nutshimiu Atusseun , an independent cultural institution within the framework of Human Resources Canada. From 2001 it became Innu Cultural Center built in Kamestastin, a village on a water-filled crater that was formed around 38 million years ago by the impact of a meteorite. In 2005, several guest accommodations were completed, on the roof of which there are now 48 solar panels. By using wind power, the foundation tries to become independent of expensive diesel generators. Both Air Labrador and the 51% Innu-owned airline Innu Mikun connect the lake with Goose Bay.

With the steep rise in raw material prices since 2007, the pressure on the Labrador ethnic groups to issue appropriate permits has increased sharply again. From March 2007 to April 2008, the Inuit of Nunatsiavut negotiated with a uranium company, but at a meeting in Hopedale they narrowly refused a permit for the next three years, even though the company claimed to have invested 70 million dollars in exploration. However, your search for uranium should be allowed to continue for the next three years.8

In February 2010, 150 Quebec innu sparked a heated public debate over the Innu's hunting rights when they hunted caribou in an area in Newfoundland and Labrador Province. They camped in an area that was very endangered Red Wine with the huge George River- Herd shares. Shawn Atleo, leader of the First Nations Congregation, defended hunting as the oldest Innu tradition.9 In 2009 the Innu resisted test flights again, this time over Seal Lake.10

See also

External links


  • Gerhard P. Bassler: Vikings to submarines. The German Experience in Newfoundland and Labrador (McGill-Queen's Studies in Ethnic History), McGill-Queen's University Press 2006 (see Google Books.
  • Roberta Buchanan, Anne Hart, Bryan Greene: The Woman who mapped Labrador. The Life and Expedition Diary of Mina Hubbard, 2005, reprinted 2006 (Google Books).
  • Trevor Bell, M. A. P. Renouf: Prehistoric Cultures, Reconstructed Coasts: Maritime Archaic Indian Site Distribution in Newfoundland, in: World Archeology 35.3 (2203) 350-370.
  • Sean Thomas Cadigan: Newfoundland and Labrador. A history, University of Toronto Press 2009 (see Google Books.
  • C. Grant Head: Eighteenth Century Newfoundland: A Geographers Perspective (Carleton Library Series No 99), Toronto 1976.
  • Robert McGhee, James A. Tuck: An Archaic Sequence from the Strait of Belle Isle, Labrador, Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, 1975.
  • Patrick O'Flaherty: Old Newfoundland. A History to 1843, Long Beach Press, 1999.
  • Paul O'Neill: The Oldest City. The Story of St. John's, Newfoundland, Boulder Publications, 2003.
  • Peter E. Pope: Fish into Wine: The Newfoundland Plantation in the Seventeenth Century (Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia), The University of North Carolina Press 2004 (see Google Books.
  • Bill Rompkey: The Story of Labrador, McGill-Queen's University Press 2003 (see Google Books.
  • George A. Rose: Cod. The Ecological History of the North Atlantic Fisheries, St. John's: Breakwater Books 2007 (see Google Books.
  • Joan M. Sullivan: Newfoundland Portfolio. A History in Portraits, St. John's: Jesperson 2006 (see Google Books.
  • James A. Tuck: Newfoundland and Labrador prehistory, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984.


  1. 1 ↑ This and the following, according to William W. Fitzhugh: The Gateways Project 2003-2004, Surveys and Excavations from Hare Harbor to Jacques Cartier Bay, Artic Studies Center, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 2004.
  2. 2 ↑ C. Grant Head: Eighteenth Century Newfoundland, Toronto 1976, p. 211.
  3. 3 ↑ Here is a photo from 1906, from a camp on the George River: Mushuauinnuts at camp on Mushuau shipu (George River) 1906 – Photo: William Brooks Cabot.
  4. 4 ↑ Pete Davies: Catching Cold - The Hunt for a Killer Virus, London 1999.
  5. 5 ↑ A photo of a typical Innu tent can be found here: taken between Border Beacon (Ashuapun) and Davis Inlet (Utshimassits).
  6. 6 ↑ See report of the CBC v. 4th December 2004.
  7. 7 ↑ In 2006 there was an eight-week wage strike because workers in Voisey's Bay were paid less than in Greater Sudbury and Thompson. See CBC report dated September 27, 2006. The governmental page of the project can be found here: Voisey's Bay.
  8. 8 ↑ See Labrador Inuit vote for uranium mining ban, April 8, 2008.
  9. 9 ↑Assembly of First Nations defends Innu right to hunt caribou in Labrador, in: The News, February 25, 2010.
  10. 10 ↑Innu of Labrador say plan for supersonic test flights reopens 'past conflicts', in: Winnipeg Free Press, February 19, 2009.

The following applies to the images:

Copying, distribution, or modification is permitted under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. A copy of the license text is included under the title GNU Free Documentation License.

The text can be found here.