How to design armor for functional purposes


The phase sequence of the CPM

The process of determining and meeting requirements in the Bundeswehr is divided into three phases of analysis, project planning and implementation. Each phase is concluded by a phase document (Fig. 1)

Analysis phase

The Bundeswehr Inspector General is responsible for carrying out a cross-Bundeswehr capability analysis during the analysis phase. Capability gaps are identified in appropriate initiatives that can be brought forward by anyone. Possible solutions for closing recognized skill gaps are to be examined in all planning categories; this can also be organizational changes, a changed personnel approach or the like. Required skills are laid down in a level decision, the system capability requirement (SFF). The basis are conceptual specifications as well as experience from use and operation. If the capability gap recognized in this way can only be closed in the armaments planning category, "the CPM continues to roll in". The solution is defined in one or more Concluding Functional Requirement (s) (AF). In the case of commercially available products, the analysis phase is immediately followed by the introduction. In this case, only a summarized phase document, the final functional requirement and, at the same time, the implementation permit (AF / ReG) are required as a requirement and budget-based document.
If new products are to be introduced into the Bundeswehr because no commercially available solutions are available on the market, the analysis phase is concluded with the phase document AF. In this, the functional requirements are to be described, which are decisive for closing the capability gap. Available components are to be used.
The analysis phase is the sole responsibility of the military user.

Project planning phase

Only for new products that are not commercially available is a project planning phase to be carried out afterwards in order to rule out implementation risks with regard to performance, time and costs as far as possible. To reduce the risk, the effectiveness of the proposed solutions must be demonstrated. This includes the construction and testing of demonstrators and corresponding tests. The project planning phase ends with an implementation permit (ReG); As a procurement document, this is a prerequisite for the release of budget funds for the introduction.

Introductory phase

The aim of the introductory phase is to procure available products (if necessary, with adjustments) or to provide services. On the basis of the contractor evidence and the operational test, the level decision approval for use (GeNu) is made. It is used to determine the suitability of the product in terms of the intended purpose under practical conditions. It is the prerequisite for the handover to the user and for the commissioning of further lots. If available products are procured unchanged, the necessary measures must already be introduced in the analysis phase in such a way that the GeNu can become part of the AF / ReG.
The project ends with delivery of the last piece or partial step or if it is canceled. At the end of the introductory phase, there is the phase document final report (ASB).
In use, the imported product is kept in a ready-to-use condition, taking into account the principle of economic efficiency.
The procedural provisions on the tasks and responsibilities in use
will not be discussed in more detail here.

The primary task of the medical service is the emergency medical care including preventive medical measures, rescue and the qualified transport of the wounded with the aim of a treatment result that corresponds to the quality of the professional standard in Germany.
In the following examples, selected projects of the medical service are addressed, which are handled in the lead in the armaments group of the medical office of the Bundeswehr and for which the new procedural provisions are already being applied.

The air-relocatable medical facilities (LSE)

The air-relocatable medical facilities are the first major project of the Bundeswehr medical service to be introduced in accordance with the new procedural provisions of the CPM. The LSE are tent-supported systems that are used to support rapid initial and evacuation operations.
(Fig. 2)
With the system capability requirement for the LSE, signed on February 21, 2003 by the General Inspector of the Bundeswehr, the capability gap in the area of ​​mobile systems for the medical service of the Bundeswehr was identified and documented. According to the CPM, the material solution in the armaments planning category was decreed by the Integrated Working Group on Capability Analysis (IAGFA), in which the simultaneous commissioning of three separate phase documents was issued at the official level.
For the Airborne Rescue Station (LLRS), the Airborne Rescue Center, Leicht (LLRZ, le) and the Airborne Rescue Center (LLRZ), the Armaments group in the Bundeswehr Medical Office was responsible for final functional requirements with implementation approval (AF / ReG) as a prerequisite for the release of budget funds for the introductory phase worked out.

When these documents were signed on July 25, 2003, responsibility for implementation was transferred to the project manager at the Federal Office for Defense Technology and Procurement (BWB). On the basis of the functions required in the documents, the suitability and performance of the future product according to its intended use under operating conditions and taking into account the environmental compatibility and the safety requirements were examined in a field test. This operational test was divided into several sections (cold and heat tests, various packing and loading tests) and served on the one hand to determine the technical operating parameters and functional limits and on the other hand to determine suitability by the military under real-life conditions.
A cold test of the tents was carried out in the spring of 2004 at the military technical department in Oberjettenberg; The complete systems were tested when heating (at around minus 15 ° C) in January 2006 in the Kaufbeuren area.
In July 2004, the Rapid Emergency Medical Service Command (Kdo SES) was commissioned to test an LLRZ, le plus the functional part of sterilization (which is only designed for the LLRZ) in Sardinia at the German Air Force Training Command. It has already been shown here that the system can be rated positively overall, but that further improvements are necessary, predominantly on peripheral components. It was found that all plastic tent zips are unsuitable, they deform after a short time when exposed to heat of approx. 40 ° C and tear; they have already been exchanged for metal zippers as part of the manufacturer's warranty.
As part of the summer trip of the Federal Minister of Defense, the trinational certification exercise WHITE ROCK in the Leipzig / Weißenfels area was completed with great success on behalf of NATO and the LLRZ, le was presented to the Federal Minister and the federal press.
On the basis of the predominantly positive results of the operational test, the level decisions “Approval for use” will now be made by the BWB, presumably by the end of 2006.

In 2003, the total requirement was defined according to conceptual specifications in the corresponding phase documents (AF / ReG). In this regard, the ZSanDstBw is to be optimized so that, according to the specified deployment options, a corresponding number of LLRS, LLRZ, le and LLRZ with sufficient circulation reserves for upcoming special tasks of the ZSanDstBw and also the Special Operations Division (DSO) are procured.
The LLRS is to be used for the medical service focus formation and for the medical service support of smaller deployments or remote deployed troop units in level 1.
The LLRZ, le as an emergency surgical treatment facility ensures medical care until more sustainable facilities are ready for use.
(Fig. 4)
The LLRZ has the necessary skills for further emergency medical and surgical care with extended diagnostic skills as well as the possibility of sterilizing medical products.

A total of four LLRZ, six LLRZ, le and ten LLRS were required.

In the second quarter of 2005, there was a change in the demand determined at the time with regard to the number of LLRZ, le. An interim decision was made to increase the number by two more systems in order to be able to support the deployment of mechanized forces in a highly mobile battle with a large gain in space and high battle intensity.
Fig. 5
In summary, it can be stated that the projects of the "air-relocatable sanitary facilities", with which the capability gap in the area of ​​sanitary supply for highly mobile workers is closed, have made significant progress; Detailed problems still have to be resolved within the framework of the preparation of the permits for the use of both the periphery and the sanitary equipment. However, the complete handover to the users in the ZSanDstBw or in the army can take place after all GeNu have been issued. Only after a final report has been drawn up is the decision-making documentation for the medical equipment to be continued by the manager of use in the Bundeswehr medical office.

Protected transport of the wounded

The medical care of wounded, accident-injured and sick soldiers corresponds to a treatment continuum that includes in particular the qualified transport of the wounded (VwuTrsp) and should always be completed with the best possible convalescence of the patient. According to the SFF for the "transport of wounded in the armed forces", signed on June 16, 2005 by the Inspector General of the Bundeswehr, the VwuTrsp is defined as the targeted, appropriate and medical requirements adapted transport of wounded, accident victims and sick people (VUK) with adequate means of transport .

In order to meet the demands of the SFF "transport of wounded in the armed forces", the medical service is currently on land-based protected means of transport for wounded (VwuTrspM) including the VwuTrsp Kfz Wiesel 2 SanTrp, the BV206S SanTrp, the MTW M113 as variant KrKw, the TPz Fuchs BAT and the DURO 3 BAT is available.
(Fig. 6)

The air-loadable, all-terrain, lightly armored VwuTrsp Kfz Wiesel 2 medical troop (SanTrp) enables the medical troops to follow the large-scale movements of quickly deployable, light forces in difficult terrain and accordingly ensure the medical service supply via a rapid focus on mobile combat. However, with this VwuTrsp Kfz restrictions in mine protection must be accepted for reasons of system capability (air transportability) and, in addition, considerable restrictions with regard to ergonomics.
Furthermore, the BV206S SanTrp with a level of protection comparable to the Wiesel 2 is available for the DSO and the mountain troops. The BV206S SanTrp consists of a front and rear section, which are connected to one another via an articulated joint and are therefore steered as a whole. Thanks to this principle and the wide rubber band chains, which cause very low ground pressure, the vehicle is extremely mobile even in the most difficult of terrain. Like the Wiesel 2, the lightly armored vehicle has an NBC protection system and allows the rear of the vehicle to accommodate either two lying or one lying and three seated wounded.
As a lightly armored full-track vehicle, the M113 MTW is currently still used as a KrKw variant in the Bw's medical service. It does not meet any of the current requirements for mobility, protection and medical service functionality. With the TPz Fuchs (with additional armor), the SanDstBw has a VwuTrspM with protection level 1 against mines and level 3 against ballistic threats according to STANAG 4569. This allows adequate protection against ballistic fire, but currently only limited protection against mines. The transport capacity of the wounded at the BAT includes one wounded person requiring intensive care or, alternatively, two slightly wounded soldiers. Because of the extremely cramped interior, the vehicle only meets the current technical requirements to a very limited extent.
The DURO 3 BAT corresponds in a special way to the current medical service requirements for mobility and functionality within the scope of the new range of tasks of the Bundeswehr. This modern VwuTrspM has a so-called "medium protection level" (level 2 ballistic protection and level 1 mine protection). This means that the ZSanDstBw has a VwuTrspM with the ability to VwuTrsp and to provide emergency medical first aid to one seriously and two slightly injured soldiers in a transport room protected against anti-personnel mines and hard core ammunition for operations with low to medium intensity.
(Fig. 7)

In addition to operations for stabilization, it is also important to assertively carry out operations with a high level of combat intensity against a militarily organized enemy and against forces fighting asymmetrically. In order to achieve an operative effect in the operational area, high tactical agility and effectiveness while at the same time protection against threats are indispensable skills. The medical service personnel deployed in this case must therefore in particular have protected medical vehicles with a level of protection corresponding to the heavy mechanized forces to be supplied and a corresponding mobility.
The DURO 3 BAT is only suitable to a limited extent for the medical support of armored forces in combat.
Taking into account the functional requirements that have to be taken into account in these operations of heavy mechanized forces, the Bundeswehr currently does not have a suitable VwuTrspM that equally meets the requirements of the professional medical service requirements, communication and leadership skills, tactical mobility and protection against direct combat effects .

By resolution of the Integrated Working Group Ability Analysis -Support Sustainability Mobility- (IAGFA UDM) it was decreed to close this capability gap in the area of ​​the land-based protected transport of the wounded. The realization risk of a so-called “Heavy Protected Medical Vehicle” (SGSanKfz) was assessed as “not insignificant” in technical, temporal and financial terms after an initial examination by the IAGFA UDM. In order to take account of this realization risk and an open-ended analysis phase, a final functional requirement (AF) was commissioned as a phase document.
A "Study Working Group Analysis Phase" (SAGA) set up at the official level, responsible for the development of the phase document, came to the conclusion that the "Armored Transport Vehicle (GTK) BOXER" is currently the only available vehicle concept that meets the functional requirements in terms of mobility and payload - and the usable volume of an SGSanKfz is sufficient.
(Fig. 8)
In terms of the level of protection, it is currently the only wheeled vehicle that largely meets the requirements. In addition, the Dutch armed forces have already developed a prototype for a GTK BOXER ambulance.
(Fig. 9)
This Dutch ambulance vehicle already predominantly covers the medical service requirements for an SGSanKfz with regard to the spatial concept (setup configurations VwuTrsp) in the area of ​​the mission module.
(Fig. 10)
After the first check, the necessary adjustments are essentially limited to the following areas:
- Modification and integration of communication and medical equipment
- Optimization of the stretcher system (carrying system) with regard to restraint, lying positions and handling
- Creation of a protected passenger position with sufficient field of vision
- Integration of a weapon station

Since only changes to the outer mission module shell to create the passenger position and the weapon station are to be expected, the existing Dutch variant offers an excellent starting point for further work. In addition, an SGSanKfz based on a vehicle concept of the GTK BOXER is not an isolated solution within the Bundeswehr, even from a logistical and economic point of view, as the GTK BOXER is already qualified as a command vehicle and as a group transporter in the area of ​​the TSK Heer.In this respect, the driving module of an SGSanKfz on a boxer basis could be adopted according to the development of the German GTK BOXER (group transporter or lead vehicle).
Since the modifications shown involve a manageable implementation risk, a project planning phase was not carried out in favor of a so-called “purchase solution”, particularly for functional and armaments-related reasons.
A change in the assignment to an AF / ReG was therefore made in a written procedure by BMVg Fü S VI 3 from July 15, 2005. The reallocation of the AF to an AF / ReG results in a considerable gain in time with regard to the realization of the first series vehicles, which should now be available to the user starting in 2009.
With the SGSanKfz, the medical service is essentially taking into account the objective of ensuring the availability of a dispositive of suitable VwuTrspM that meets both the technical, functional needs and the application-oriented and threat-oriented protection requirements, for the first time in the area of ​​heavily mechanized, armored forces.

Conclusion and outlook

The examples described in the article impressively show how the skill-related approach of the CPM is used in important projects of the medical service and how the step-by-step approach helps to minimize the risk of realization and at the same time to achieve the best possible solution to close the recognized skill gap.
With the stipulation of the holder of the decree in the BMVg (Org 1) to also introduce the hospital and institute-specific material according to the rules of the CPM, the material of the Bundeswehr hospitals and institutes is also included in the skill-related standardization of the medical equipment, of course with due consideration of the various Main tasks. However, this is done at the expense of a significantly increased effort for the creation of a large number of additional phase documents and stage decisions. This additional effort caused by the mandatory CPM conformity must be taken into account through appropriate personnel adjustments. The acquisition of technically experienced personnel for this demanding, but also extremely interesting and important task is of particular importance in order to be able to provide the medical services of the Bundeswehr with the necessary material to fulfill its mandate on time and in the required scope in the future.

Date: 01.01.2006

Source: Military medicine and military pharmacy 2006/1