Can Spain join the Arab League

encyclopedia

The Arab League was founded in 1945 and has 22 members and four observers: Brazil, Eritrea, India and Venezuela.[1]

The Arab League itself is an observer in several international and regional organizations such as the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union and the United Nations and has observed several ASEAN summits.

Arab League diplomatic relations

Member States of the Arab League and

Embassies, delegations and offices of the Arab League

European Union and African Union

Politics of the neighboring states [edit]

The Arab Neighborhood Policy is a proposal agreed at the 22nd Arab League Summit in the Libyan city of Sirte, where the Secretary General Amr Moussa proposed the creation of the ANP (Arab Neighborhood Policy) to improve relations with the United States' neighboring countries to improve Arab League states.

Countries expected to join the ANP are Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, France, Spain, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya and Eritrea.

Multilateral relations [edit]

African Union [edit]

The formal relationship between the two organizations began in 1977 when they announced their collaboration on financial, political and economic issues. At a summit meeting between the two organizations in Cairo in the same year, they signed several agreements to improve cooperation.

On January 16, 2008, the Arab League sent a delegation to the AU headquarters in Addis Ababa, the Ethiopian capital, to gain experience with the African Security and Peace Council, which has been in operation since 2004, the decision of the Arab League to bring about an Arab peace create After the 2006 Lebanon War, a Security Council was set up to deploy peacekeeping forces in Darfur, southern Lebanon and Somalia. Other regions like Iraq have not been announced or mentioned as the Arab League's official stance denounces all forms of foreign troops in Iraq to maintain stability.

Eritrea [edit]

In 2003, Eritrea was the first observer on the pan-Arab body and opened the door to become a potential member of the league, while the current Eritrean president has rejected any plans to join the league in the near future due to its lack of efficiency.[2]

ASEAN [edit]

As of January 2008, AL and ASEAN had no significant relationship, but the Arab League Economic Council decided to expand economic cooperation with regional blocs to benefit from their economic experience and development and contacted the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). build better relationships and increase investment from that region and learn from its economic achievements to be applied in the league. The head of the delegation, also Secretary General of the Arab Council for Economic Development (ACED), Dr. Ahmed Jweily, will help the Arab states to increase internal investment as well as internal imports and exports to reach a treaty of understanding and cooperation between the two organizations. The delegation concluded the visit by announcing that three new Arab trade unions would be proposed for the 87th Council Summit in the following period.

European Union [edit]

The Arab League and the European Union have had a common relationship since the EU developed into a political rather than economic power. At the 19th Summit of the Arab League in Saudi Arabia, Javier Solana attended the summit and fully supported the Arabs' 2002 peace initiative. After this summit, he had several meetings with the Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and the Secretary General of the Arab League, Amr Moussa. At the summit he addressed the Arab leaders:

“”We are together again, the European Union and the Arab League. Once again, we have an opportunity to reaffirm our shared commitment to the values ​​of civilization we share. More than ever, Europeans and Arabs face common challenges. I am confident that we will find new ways to improve our cooperation“”[3]

France [edit]

France has historically been closely linked to the Arab world, starting with the Maghreb region and the Middle East, but France's closest ties are with Algeria, where it served as a colony of France with a bloody war of independence for about 200 years, and relations are good today. France is considered to be the most cordial with all Arab states. A large Arab population in France is one of them 03 Millions of Arabs, France holds the largest Arab cultural center outside of the Arab League.

Since the end of the Lebanese civil war, France has played an active role in the reconstruction of Lebanon. The Hexagon is the leading investor in the land of the Ceders.

Libya developed particularly close ties with France after the war in June 1967 when France relaxed its arms embargo against non-frontline Middle East fighters and agreed to sell weapons to the Libyans. In 1974 Libya and France signed an agreement under which Libya exchanged a guaranteed oil supply for technical assistance and financial cooperation.

Latin America [edit]

Relations between the Arab League and the Union of South American Nations (USAN) have only recently been established. AL Secretary General Amr Moussa said it was time for the Arab League and Latin America to seek close ties. Latin America is home to over 20 million Arabs, more than half of whom live in Brazil. As a result, President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva went to great lengths to improve relations.

Arab-Latin American relations are mainly focused on energy and trade, which strengthens ties between the two regions. In May 2005, the first South American-Arab Country Summit (ASPA) took place in Brazil, in which 34 countries took part to discuss trade and energy. Arab and Latin American economies complement each other. Latin America has developed high-tech capabilities and industries that will find ready-to-use markets in the Arab world, as will agricultural production. But Latin America is also energy hungry and a market for Arab oil and downstream petrochemicals. They have other common interests as well, not just a desire to get rid of the subsidies that allow European and American farmers to destroy the livelihoods of their counterparts in other parts of the world. In an increasingly global economy, both want to avoid the dominance of multinational corporations.

However, the summit continued to focus on politics rather than economics, with a joint call to Israel to dismantle settlements, concerns over US sanctions against Syria, a call for UN reform and Arab support for Argentina's position in the Falkland Islands. The development of business relations between the Arab world and South America will strike an inestimable balance between the over-dependence of both regions on Europe, the US and Japan for imports and expertise.[4]

As many countries recognized Jerusalem as Israel's capital after Donald Trump's leadership in 2017, many Latin American countries began to change their stance. When Guatemala recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, the Arab League cut ties with the country in 2018.[5]

Brazil [edit]

Brazil was admitted to the Arab League as an observer in 2002[6] or 2003.[7] The country has a strong Arab heritage with over 12 Millions of people of Arab descent, many of them from Lebanon. The First Summit of the South American and Arab Countries (ASPA)[8] took place in May 2005 in Brazil, in which 34 countries participated.

Venezuela [edit]

Venezuela has large Arab populations from Syria, Lebanon and Palestine, has supported the Palestinian cause, and is one of two Latin American countries to break ties with Israel (the other is Bolivia). It was granted observer status in the Arab League in 2006.[1]

Bilateral relations [edit]

India [edit]

India, which was granted observer status in 2007, was the first member to join the League despite having no Arab community or an Arabic-speaking indigenous population. However, there are a significant number of people who claim Arab ancestry. Trade between India and members of the Arab League was estimated at $ 30 billion in 2007.[9] India's main exports to Arab League countries are chemicals, automobiles, machinery, food and other fast moving products, while it is a major importer of Arab oil and gas. India also has a large diaspora in the Arab League countries of around 05 Millions, of which around 20% are professionals.[10]

Oman and India have particularly good relations, for example; Both countries regularly exchange ship visits.[11] Recently, Oman granted India berthing rights to Indian naval vessels.[12][13] The Indian Navy has also trained Omani naval forces for many years.[14]

Qatar is the only other country in the Arab League, besides Oman, that has a significant military relationship with India.[12] The pact guarantees Qatar Indian intervention if Qatar's interests are threatened.[14] Naval officers from both Qatar and Oman train in India under the institutes of the Indian Navy. India also has some military ties with Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates, which are primarily naval focus and frequently exchange visits from naval wills of goodwill.[15] The UAE has asked India for assistance in setting up a submarine arm and hydrographic survey and coastal zone management.[16] In addition, the UAE have shown interest in training their naval personnel in India[16]

Some members of the Arab League, in particular the UAE, have also spoken out in favor of using Indian troops in Iraq, although New Delhi has not made a decision in this regard.[citation needed] Some members of the Arab League have also spoken out in favor of India having a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.[17] India was one of the first countries to recognize Palestine when it was proclaimed in November 1988. In 2011 India confirmed that it would support a Palestinian offer to join the United Nations at a session of the General Assembly.[18]

Iran [edit]

Iranian-Arab relations have always been very mixed. In the Middle East, historical conflicts have always shaped the perception of Iran in neighboring Arab countries. Sometimes in peaceful coexistence, sometimes in bitter conflicts. Arabs from North Africa have for the most part maintained closer ties with Iran because of the limited historical link between them and Iran.

Israel [edit]

Only six Arab states recognize Israel: Egypt, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Sudan and Morocco. although these relationships are abnormal and have inherent problems. Relations with Israel deteriorated particularly after the last Gaza war, when Mauritania ended its relations with Israel.[19]

Pakistan [edit]

China [edit]

The recent economic boom in the People's Republic of China has led to increased demand for oil and other crude oil products, much of which has been supplied by the member states of the Arab League. Sino-Arab relations have increased in recent years with the establishment of several Arab-Sino business forums, conferences, and conventions to improve trade and cooperation in recent years. China is the second largest financial investor in Sudan after the other members of the Arab League. As a result, much of Sudan's oil production is sent overseas to China. Foreign relations have also been established with the Arab League states in Morocco, Algeria, Egypt, Iraq and Syria in order to continue investing in oil production in the Middle East and North Africa.

As of 2008, the Arab League and the People's Republic of China agreed to set up an annual forum between the two parties to discuss issues relating to economic, trade and environmental studies. In 2009 the forum was expanded to include the discussion of various nuclear projects.

Russia [edit]

Arab-Russian relations extend well beyond the Khazars and their wars with the Arab Empire, but have thrived most under the Soviet Union, as the Communist Union of Soviet Socialist Republics supported several socialist-Arab regimes against the capitalist United States during the Cold War Has. Regimes like Nasser's Egypt and the Baathist regimes in Syria and Iraq, as well as other socialist regimes in Libya and South Yemen. After the end of the Cold War and the establishment of the Russian Federation, new relationships were established. Russia, with its strong diplomatic ties with Soviet-era Arab states, is trying to regain its strength by supporting its cause, particularly in the Security Council.

Turkey

Turkey has expressed a wish for observer status in the league but has been turned down on several political reasons. One of the reasons for the rejection came from Iraq and Syria because of the Turkish water projects on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, particularly the Ataturk Dam. Also, the decision of Hatay Province to join Turkey in 1939 was never recognized by Syria, which continues to show Turkey's Hatay Province as part of Syrian territory on its maps.

Today Turkey has improved relations with Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Tunisia. It also acts as the main facilitator in the Israeli-Syrian peace process. However, a major concern for Turkey is the possibility of an independent Kurdish state emerging from a destabilized Iraq. Turkey is currently waging a war against Kurdish insurgents on its own soil, in which an estimated 37,000 people have lost their lives.

United States [edit]

The relationship between the United States and the Arab world prior to World War II was limited. In addition, when compared to European powers like Great Britain and France, who managed to colonize almost the entire Arab world after defeating the Ottoman Empire in 1918, the United States was popular and respected by the Arabs for using modern medicine and surroundings had brought educational institutions in several Arab countries. The US had also made highly qualified petroleum engineers available to the Arab world. For example, there were some links between the United States and the Arab world before World War II. Other examples of US-Arab companies include the Red Line Agreement, signed in 1928, and the Anglo-American Petroleum Agreement, signed in 1944. Both agreements were legally binding and reflected an American interest in controlling Arab and Middle Eastern energy resources, namely oil, and also reflected an American security imperative to prevent the (re-) emergence of a powerful regional rival. The Red Line Agreement was part of a network of agreements signed in the 1920s to restrict oil supplies and ensure that major [mostly American] companies ... could control oil prices in world markets. The agreement with the Red Line regulated the development of Arab oil for the next two decades. The 1944 Anglo-American Petroleum Agreement was based on negotiations between the United States and Great Britain over control of Arab and Middle Eastern oil.

Uzbekistan [edit]

Relations between the Arab League and Uzbekistan were almost non-existent until 2007. Then the Secretary General of the Arab League, Amr Moussa, and the Uzbek President, Islam Karimov, met to continue the discussions previously held in Cairo about stronger Arab cooperation with Central Asia and greater support for Central Asian Arab causes such as Iraq, Sudan and Palestine.[20]

References [edit]

  1. ^ ab“The Arab League on the International Democracy Watch website”. Archived from the original on 08/18/2011. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
  2. ^“Archived Copy”. Archived from the original on March 31, 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-13.CS1 maintenance: Archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^“Summary of the remarks made by Javier SOLANA, EU High Representative for the CFSP, at the 19th Arab League Summit. Riyadh, March 28, 2007 ”(PDF). Council of the European Union. Retrieved 2007-10-30.
  4. ^“New Center to Promote Investment in the Middle East and Latin America”. Thaindian news. Thaindian.com Company Limited. February 23, 2008. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
  5. ^https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20180524-arab-league-cancels-deals-with-guatemala-over-jerusalem-embassy-move/
  6. ^“L’influence des BRIC en Méditerranée” by Sébastien Abis, Mediterranean Yearbook 2010, Barcelona: Institut Europeu de la Mediterrània, 2011.
  7. ^“Quiéne's son los Árabes? Breve perfil sociológico e histórico ”by Abdelmalik Hamza, Alif Well No. 76, November 2009, Madrid: Kálamo Libros, 2009. In Spanish
  8. ^“Summit of the South American-Arab countries, Cúpula America do Sul-Países Árabes, Cumbre America del Sur-Países Árabes”. Archived from the original on 03/09/2012. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
  9. ^ASHOK B SHARMA (December 2, 2008). “India-Arab trade is expected to rise to USD 100 billion”. The Financial Express. The Indian Express Limited. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
  10. ^“Indo-Arab trade can reach USD 100 billion”. Business line. The Hindu Division. December 3, 2008. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
  11. ^“India activates the first eavesdropping post on foreign soil: Radar in Madagascar”. The Indian Express. The Indian Express Limited. July 17, 2008. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
  12. ^ ab“Indian naval ships are supposed to arrive in Kuwait”. Kuwait Times. Kuwait Times Newspaper. August 11, 2007. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
  13. ^http://www.indianexpress.com/news/India-activates-first-listening-post-on-foreign-soil:-radars-in-Madagascar/205416/
  14. ^ ab"India's Security Agreement with Qatar Does Not Include Troop Deployment: Official". Zee News. Zee News Limited. November 11, 2008. Archived from the original on August 13, 2012. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
  15. ^http://www.kuwaittimes.net/read_news.php?newsid=NjM4NDM3MjY1
  16. ^ abhttp://in.rediff.com/news/2006/jan/03uae.htm
  17. ^“India's Voice Can Help Middle East Peace: Arab League”. RxPG news. RxPG Medical Solutions Private Limited. May 10, 2007. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
  18. ^“India supports Palestinian offer for UN membership”. The Hindu. Chennai, India. 17th September 2011.
  19. ^“Qatar, Mauritania cut ties with Israel”. BayBek, voice of a nation. www.en.baybak.com. January 17, 2009. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
  20. ^League of Arab States Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine (Arabic)

External links [edit]