Is a sponge heterotropic or autotropic



Development context: plants and animals
Flagellates:
The flagellates can be used as the starting point for the development context, as there are both vegetable and animal flagellates, from which the vagility of the first plant organisms and the sessility of the first animal organisms can be derived. Flagellates must have arisen from bacteria from which fungi and lichens developed. Fungi, also called fungi, are storage plants that live on living or dead matter, i.e. they are heterotrophic organisms. Their cell walls are generally made of chitin and they mostly consist of cell threads, the so-called hyphae. Lichen are organisms that are formed by algae and fungi in symbiosis. The best-known representative of the flagellates is the Euglena, the eye animal. As a single-celled flagellate, it moves with the help of a flagellum found at the front end of the body. The Euglena got its name from a conspicuous red eye-spot on the edge of the scourge pit. In fact, it is not an eye, but with incident light and constant rotation of the cell around its own axis, the spot creates a shadow that falls at short intervals on a light-sensitive spot in the flagellum. This enables it to move towards the light. In addition, green dots stand out in the plasma of the Euglena. They are chloroplasts, with the help of which they, like the "green" plant, produce their own food through photosynthesis (autotrophic diet). Only when the light conditions are insufficient for photosynthesis does it take in food from the outside (heterotrophic diet).
The flagellates also include Sporozoa, Ciliata and Amoeba. The amoeba has developed a very special mode of locomotion. Your cell membrane is relatively elastic and this allows your plasma to flow in a certain direction and the plasma is reduced on the opposite side. This creates a pseudopod that ensures movement. Because of this ability, it is also called alternating or flowing animal, as it constantly changes its shape while moving.
The Volvox is the first real multicellular organism and is the so-called missing link between the single cell organism and the sponge. It feeds on an autotrophic diet, but tends towards the animal kingdom because of its division of labor.

Green algae:
On the side of the plants, the green algae are derived from the flagellates. Green algae are combined with chandelier algae and yoke algae to form the chlorophyta. The original forms of mosses, ferns and flowering plants are believed to have originated from the green algae. Green algae have an undivided body of vegetation (= thallus), as they consist of individual cells or cell threads and are not yet structured like the cormophytes, from root, leaf and trunk.

Mosses:
The mosses are still counted among the valley plants because they have not yet formed a real root. Instead of the root, they have rhiziodes for anchoring in the soil and for absorbing nutrient salt. Like the fern plants, the mosses are adapted to rural life, but still need water to reproduce. The characteristic property of the mosses is the generation change.

Ferns:
The next stage of development are the ferns, they emerged from the development base of the mosses. They can be called the first land plants. They already have a corm, that is, they consist of root, leaf and trunk. The root is a leafless organ for the absorption of water and nutrients, as well as for anchoring in the soil. In addition to the stem and root, the leaf is the main organ of the cormophytes, as it is used for assimilation, gas exchange and transpiration.

Flowering plants:
Plant development ends with flowering plants. Flowering plants are highly developed shoot plants, fully adapted to country life, which are characterized by the possession of flowers and the formation of seeds. According to the position of the ovule, a distinction is made between two subdivisions, namely the Nacktsamer (conifers), whose ovule lies open on the carpels, and the Bedecktsamer, whose ovule is enclosed in ovaries.

Sponge:
On the animal side, the development begins with the sponge. As already mentioned, the simplest multi-cell arose from the Volvox. This simplest multicellular cell consists of a colony of collar flagella and its body wall consists of ecto and endoderm. The collar flagellates live sessile. They have a plasma collar from the center of which the scourge arises. With the help of the plasma collar, they phagocytose parts of food. Sponges do not yet have any real tissue, the cells are just loosely connected. They have a central cavity and an inflow and outflow opening (osculum) to allow water to flow in and out. The main groups of sponges are the lime sponges, the silica sponges and the horn sponges.

Coelenterates:
The hollow animal develops from the sponge, which is also firmly attached (they are firmly attached to the bottom with a footplate). Hollow animals are radial symmetry, have tentacles and their body walls are made of EK / EN, thus forming a solid cell structure. You already have a gastrovascular system, which is responsible for distributing the substances. The gastric space has a mouth opening at the top for taking in and excreting food at the same time. Almost all hollow animals are sea creatures, with corals being the largest class of hollow animals.

Bilateria:
The hollow animals lead over to the bilateria, the so-called locomotion animals or also known as organ animals. In addition to EK / EN, you have already formed the 1st mesoderm. The mesoderm is the third, middle cotyledon, and a cotyledon is an embryonic layer of cells from which certain parts of the body and organs emerge. The prototype of the Bilateria is the flatworm. Flatworms can be found in clear mountain streams. They are surrounded by an epidermis, and the outer surface is covered with eyelashes. Flatworms do not have a real body cavity; the spaces between the organs are filled with solid connective tissue (parenchyma). They already have circular and longitudinal muscles, but they do not have a blood vessel system. Your nervous system is made up of a network of nerves and you also have a GVS. They already have "eye spots" with which they can perceive light.
Bilateria itself shows two major lines of development.

Gastro-Notoneuralia:
The gastroneuralia (ventral nerves with rope ladder nervous system) possessed by the annelids, molluscs, arthrophods and the notoneuralia (back nerves with central nervous system). The first form of the notoneuralia is the lancet fish, which subsequently develops into chordata, hemichordata. The Volvox manifesto occurs again and again in the embryonic development in the form of a blastula.





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