Why are people motivated to do sports?
Motives and Motivation
Motives in sport
- Motive for movement (sport is fun)
- Health motive (sports / is healthy)
- Achievement motive (you want to achieve something through / in sport)
- Game motif (very similar to the movement motif)
- Connection motive (social contacts through sport)
Motives in sport are stable personality traits that influence how an athlete behaves in a certain situation. These are long-lasting (stable over time) and personality-specific (individual) value dispositions.
Motivation in sport
Motivation (in sport), on the other hand, describes the striving for goals or desirable target objects based on emotional or neural activation.
A general distinction is made between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation:
Effort depends on factors that are inherent in the person (e.g. interest) and does not require any external stimulus
Effort depends on external factors (e.g. reward, compulsion); if these factors disappear, the behavior is no longer shown
- Arouse curiosity (possible applications - those exercising with a clear training goal are more motivated)
- Praise and reward
- Choose a reasonable level between over- and under-demanding
- Set achievable interim goals for long-term goals
- Make appropriate comparisons (only compare comparable items)
- Offer competitions / challenges according to different patterns
- Provide offers for different demands
- Establishing social connections
Promotion of achievement motivation
- Address the curiosity motive (tasks with relative novelty, complexity and uncertainty)
- Increase the subjective probability of success ("hope of success")
- Create incentives for success (but be careful: extrinsically motivated learners do not learn anything as soon as the reward disappears)
- Minimize fear of failure (fear reduces intellectual performance, promotes escape and avoidance behavior, possibly generates aggressive behavior)
- Consider the needs of the learner (convey security and recognition)
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