Runs enough as a physical exercise

Why does our body need exercise?

Physical activity is necessary for the normal functioning of the organism and for maintaining performance. Because: The organism adapts to the extent and type of physical activity of a person. Depending on how the body is stressed, the performance increases or decreases or remains the same. The body systems function properly when they are used sufficiently. The body, on the other hand, becomes more susceptible to functional disorders or diseases if the organ systems are not stressed enough.

The "exercise dose" is crucial: If the load is high and long enough, growth processes (e.g. in muscles) are triggered. On the other hand, degradation processes are also possible if the organism is not sufficiently stressed. For example: if a broken leg has to be put in a cast for a few weeks and cannot be moved, the affected muscles become thinner and weaker. After healing, the muscles of the weak leg regain strength through normal stress. Through targeted training, weakness can be compensated more quickly.

Danger!If the exercise dose is too high, the musculoskeletal system cannot adapt sufficiently. This can cause injuries to tendons and joints in particular.

The following examples show how movement affects the entire organism:

Effects on the musculoskeletal system

The musculoskeletal system consists of muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones and joints. Their interaction ensures posture and enables movement. Because of their better blood circulation, muscles adapt more quickly to loads than tendons, ligaments, bones or articular cartilage. Strong muscles support the musculoskeletal system, especially the knees, shoulder joints and spine. Regular exercise stimuli increase the bone density and the resilience of the joints.

Effects on the muscles

The more than 650 muscles make up around 40 percent of body weight - less for women and more for men. With the help of the skeletal muscles, we can actively perform movements. A muscle consists of many muscle cells that can be actively shortened or passively stretched. The myofibrils, the contractile elements of the muscle cells, are responsible for the contraction of a muscle cell.

How movement affects the muscles depends on the type and extent of the load. Physical activity with low physical exertion and longer duration - i.e. endurance exercise - improves the aerobic energy metabolism and increases endurance performance. Movement with high force load and short duration triggers a growth in the thickness of the muscles and increases the power output.

Practicing individual movement sequences improves the interaction of the muscles and affects performance and strength.

Effects on the cardiovascular system

The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood. It is the body's transport system that supplies every single cell in the body. The bloodstream transports breathing gas (oxygen and carbon dioxide), nutrients, but also hormones or antibodies of the immune system. The heart is the pump, the blood vessels are the tube system in which the blood flows - around four to five liters that are circulated once a minute. The heart needs 60 to 80 beats (heart rate) for this. During physical activity, the heart increases its frequency (up to 200 beats per minute) and the amount of blood transported per heartbeat (stroke volume). In this way, the blood can be circulated up to five times per minute. The blood flows faster and delivers more oxygen to the muscle cells.

Effects on breathing

Gas exchange between air and blood occurs in the lungs. When inhaled, oxygen (O2) and when exhaling carbon dioxide (CO2) submitted. The lungs work like bellows that are moved by the respiratory muscles. Around half a liter of air is inhaled or exhaled per breath (breathing rate: 16 to 20 breaths per minute) at rest (tidal volume). During physical exertion, both the tidal volume and the respiratory rate increase. Regular endurance exercise primarily trains the respiratory muscles and less the lungs themselves. But the capacity of the lungs can be better used as a result.

NoteExercise also affects the energy balance, the sugar and fat metabolism, the immune system, the hormonal system, the nervous system, the brain functions or the psyche.