Which country name ends with ISIA

This lesson deals with: Writing and pronunciation Country names Numbers Sun and moon letters The article

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1 This lesson deals with: Writing and pronunciation Country names Numbers Sun and moon letters The article العالم العربي The Arab World ١٤

2 المفردات The Arab world is divided into three large regions: The West الم غ ر ب [al-maġrib], the East الم ش ر ق [al-mašriq] and the Arabian Peninsula الج زيرة [al-ğazīra], which also includes the Gulf region الخ ليج [al-ốalīğ] counts. The following countries are members of the Arab League, in which Arabic is the official language: [mūrītānyā] 1 Mauritania م وريتان يا 2 Morocco [al-maġrib] الم غ ر ب [al-ğazā ir] 3 Algeria الج زاي ر [tūnis] 4 Tunisia تون س 5 Libya [lībiyā] ليبي ا 6 Egypt [miśr] م ص ر 7 Palestine [filasţīn] ف ل س طين 8 Lebanon [lubnān] ل ب نان 9 Syria [sūriyā] سور ي اunn را [alا الن] را الن] را الن] 10 Jordan الع راق [al- irāq] 11 Iraq ت 1 12 Kuwait [al-kūwait] الك و ي ت 13 Bahrain [al-baỏrain] الب ح ر ي ن 14 Qatar [qaţar] ق ط ر [al-imārāt] 15 Emirates (UAE) الا مارات [as-sa ūdīya] 16 Saudi Arabia ال سعودي ة 17 Oman [umān] ع مان 18 Yemen [al-yaman] الي م ن 19 Sudan [as-sūdān] الس ودان 20 Somalia [الس ودان 20 śūmāl] الص ومال 21 Djibouti [ğībūtī] جيبوتي 22 Comoros [ğuzur al- ج ز ر الق م ر qumur] ١٥ 15

3 ما الجديد The Arabic script The Arabic script is a letter script that is written from right to left. Block letters and cursive letters hardly differ, as the letters, except for six, are connected with the following. There is no upper or lower case or hyphenation. As in the Latin script, a space is left between the words. ت 5, The letters 6 القواعد The Arabic alphabet has 29 letters for consonants and the long vowels ā, ī and ū. Short vowels are not reproduced in the script; there are auxiliary symbols for them. Most Arabic texts, however, are unvocalized, i.e. without auxiliary symbols. Here you will find the Arabic letters with an explanation of the pronunciation and writing as well as an example word. Since the letters are linked together, each letter has multiple shapes. They are isolated from right to left, shown in the starting, middle and end positions. For the six letters that are not connected with the following letter, the isolated form coincides with the initial position and the middle with the end position. They are marked with (*) in the following. You will find an overview of all letters at the end of this lesson. Put on a copybook and copy the letters and sample words several times so that you are familiar with the script. Always start from the right and write to the end of the word or up to a letter that is not connected to the following, before you also start from the right and place the dots. 1. Alif (*) [ā] is used to designate a long a as in state or ä as in counting. Write a line that you draw from top to bottom and that takes up the entire height of the line. If Alif is connected to a preceding letter from the right, write it from bottom to top. The letter ends there and is not connected to the following letter. End / Middle Start / Isolated ا ا 16 ١٦

4 2. Bā [b] is pronounced like b in boat. From right to left, write an arc on the baseline that is half the height of Alif and put a point under the arc. At the beginning and in the middle of a word there is only a short hook with a dot below, because then the next letter follows. ب ب ب ب door [bāb] باب 3. Hamza [] stands for the paragraph in front of short vowels as in independent. Write a very small c with a short downstroke to the left. Hamza usually needs a carrier letter. At the beginning of the word it sits on Alif, if it is followed by a short a or u and under Alif if it is followed by an i. You will therefore find words that begin with Hamza under Alif in the dictionary. At the end of a word, Hamza often stands independently on the baseline. End Beginning Isolated ء ا ا ء Father [ab] ا ب If an Alif with Hamza is followed by another Alif, this is indicated by a tilde over Alif. This tilde is called Madda. ا باء [ābā] fathers (pl.) 4. Tā [t] is pronounced like in tea. Write the same basic form as for Bā and put two periods above the letter. ت ت ت ت [bāt] stay overnight (literally: he stayed overnight) بات ١٧ 17

5 5. Ŧā [ŧ] is a voiceless, lispelter t-loud as in English. thanks. Write the same basic form as for Bā and put three dots above the letter. ث ث ث ث furniture (pl.) [Aŧāŧ] ا ثاث 6. Ğīm [ğ] sounds like j in the jungle. Write a little tilde from left to right a little higher than Bā, then go below the baseline with a belly and put the dot in the belly. In the initial and middle positions, Ğīm has no belly, because then the next letter follows. ج ج ج ج ا جابات [iğābāt] Answers (Pl.) 7. Ỏā [ỏ] is a h-loud that you have to practice. Pant like a dog or imagine that you have just bitten on a particularly hot chilli pepper. The sound mustn't rub like the [ố]. Write the same basic form as for Ğīm, but do not put a period. ح ح ح ح باحث [bāỏiŧ] researcher 8. Ốā [ố] is a rubbing h-sound like in book. Write the same basic form as for Ğīm and put a period above the letter. خ خ خ خ Brother [aố] ا خ 18 ١٨

6 ت 7 Short vowels and other auxiliary characters Fatỏa [a] indicates a short a as in Ball. There is a small slash above the letter. Double slashes above an alif stand for the ending [- an]. ت ح ت [taỏt] under ج د ا [ğiddan] very Kasra [i] is the auxiliary character for a short i as in Please. There is a small slash under the letter. ح جاب [ỏiğāb] headscarf Ỗamma [u] denotes a short u like in butter. It's a small 9 above the letter. Love [ỏubb] ح ب Sukūn indicates that the consonant is not followed by a vowel as in fruit. There is a small circle above the letter. ا خ ت [uốt] Sister Šadda doubles letters, so they are not written twice, but audibly spoken twice. There is a lowercase w above the letter. Fatỏa and Ỗamma are placed above this w and Kasra below it. I love, like [uỏibb] ا ح ب ا ح ب ت [aỏabbat] loved her, liked 9. Dāl (*) [d] is pronounced like d in village. Write, slightly higher than Bā, one stroke from top left to bottom right, ending the letter with a curve on the baseline. Coming from another letter, first move the pen up, then back again and close with the curvature. The letter is not combined with the following letter. End / Middle د Chicken [dağāğ] د جاج Beginning / Isolated د (*) Letter is not combined with the following. ١٩ 19

7 10. Ồāl (*) [ồ] is a lisped d-loud like voiced th in English. mother. Write the same shape as for Dāl and put a period above the letter that is also not connected to the following letter. End / middle ذ خ ذ! [ốuồ] Take! (m) beginning / isolated ذ 11. Rā (*) [r] is a r-loud, rolled with the tip of the tongue, as it is spoken in southern Germany. Write a tick about the height of Bā that goes below the baseline. The curvature is less pronounced than in Dāl. Rā is not associated with the following letter. End / middle ر ا خ بار [aốbār] news (pl.) Beginning / isolated ر 12. Zāy (*) [z] is a voiced s-loud like in visit. Write the same form as for Rā and put a period above the letter. Zāy is not associated with the following letter. End / middle ز خ ب ز [ốubz] bread beginning / isolated ز 13. Sīn [s] is a voiceless s-sound like in water. Write two arcs like a w, slightly smaller than Bā, and add a larger arc that goes below the baseline. This last arc is missing in the beginning and middle position, because then the next letter follows. س س س س lesson, lesson [dars] د ر س 20 ٢٠

8 14. Šīn [š] is pronounced like sch in school. Write the same form as for Sīn and put three dots above the letter. ش ش ش ش drink (literally: he drank) [šarib] ش ر ب 15. Śād [ś] is a dull, voiceless s-sound that is spoken more emphatically than [s]. Subsequent sounds are colored darker as a result. Write a loop on the baseline, slightly higher than Bā, and connect an arch that goes below the baseline. At the beginning and in the middle of this arc there is only a short hook and the next letter follows. ص ص ص ص Tomorrow [śabāỏ] ص باح 16. Ỗād [ỗ] is a dull, voiced d-sound that is spoken more emphatically than [d]. Subsequent sounds are colored darker as a result. Write the same form as for Śād and put a period above the letter. ض ض ض ض green [aốỗar] ا خ ض ر The Ỗād is a peculiarity of the Arabic language. That is why Arabic is also referred to as the language of Ỗād ل غة ال ضاد [luġat aỗ-ỗād]. In school and when reciting the Koran, special emphasis is placed on the correct pronunciation of the Ỗād. In everyday language usage, however, one can hardly distinguish Ỗād from Ża or Ồāl. ٢١ 21

9 17. Ţā [ţ] is a dull, voiceless t-sound that is pronounced more emphatically than [t]. Subsequent sounds are colored darker as a result. Write a loop like in Śād and put a line on it from top to bottom. ط ط ط ط potatoes (pl.) [Baţāţā] ب طاطا 18. Żā [ż] is a dull, lisped, voiced s-sound that is spoken more emphatically than [ồ]. Subsequent sounds are colored darker as a result. Write the same basic form as for Ţa and put a period above the letter. ظ ظ ظ ظ Luck [ỏażż] ح ظ 19. Ain [] is a swallow or choke sound. As with all throat sounds, correct pronunciation takes some practice. Say an a, i, or u and try to swallow it. While doing this, touch your throat and gently squeeze. Ain [] can be clearly distinguished from Hamza []. Write a small c on the baseline, slightly larger than Bā, and drag a belly below the baseline. In the initial position the belly is missing and the next letter is added. In the middle position, Ain looks like a small triangle. ع ع ع ع Arabs (pl.) [Arab] ع ر ب 22 ٢٢

10 20. Ġain [ġ] is a r-loud formed in the throat, as it is spoken in northern Germany. Write the same basic form as for Ain and put a period above the letter. غ غ غ غ [ġarb] West, Occident غ ر ب 21. Fā [f] is pronounced like f in flies. Write a circle and an arc as in Bā and put a point above the letter. At the beginning and in the middle only the small circle remains. ف ف ف ف apples (pl.) [Tuffāỏ] ت ف اح 22. Qāf [q] is a plosive sound formed in the throat. Say a word that ends with k, e.g. Quark. Don't say the k, just let your tongue stand out. Now, if you slide your tongue further back, you will be able to pronounce Qaaf. Write the same basic form as for Fā and put two points above the letter. In isolated form and in the final position, Qāf goes below the baseline. ق ق ق ق East, Orient [šarq] ش ر ق ٢٣ 23

11 23. Kāf [k] is pronounced like k in potato. Write a line as high as Alif and add a curve as in Dāl, in the middle of the letter there is a small hamza. At the beginning and in the middle of the word, write the same basic form as for Dāl and then put the top line. At the end of the word the letter looks like it is in an isolated position. ك ك ك ك thank you [šukran] ش ك را 24. Lām [l] is pronounced like l in love. Write a line as high as Alif and draw an arc below the baseline. At the beginning of the word and in the middle, Lām stays on the baseline, as the next letter follows. ل ل ل ل Mann [rağul] ر ج ل If Lām is followed by an alif, the two letters form a so-called ligature. Alif lies down in the lam's arch. The following letters are not associated with Alif. لا لا لا [lā] no In االله [allāh] God becomes Lām as in Engl. pronounced ball. The little Alif above the Šadda means that there is a long [ā] to be spoken after the Lām. This little Alif الق ر ا ن is also used in other words from the Koran [al-qur ān]. E.g. in ال ر ح م ن [ar-raỏmān] the Merciful, one of the 99 names of God. 24 ٢٤

12 25. Mīm [m] is pronounced like m in museum. Write a small circle and add a vertical line that goes below the baseline. At the beginning of the word and in the middle, write only a small circle, followed by the next letter. To distinguish Mīm from Fā, it is advisable to draw the circle of Mīm below and that of Fā above. م م م م peace [salām] س لام 26. Nūn [n] is pronounced like n in next to. Write an open-topped circle, slightly higher than Bā, and put a period above the letter. At the beginning of the word and in the middle you write the same basic form as for Bā. At the end of the word, the circle goes below the baseline. wir ن ن ن ن [naỏnu] ن ح ن 27. Hā [h] is breathy h-loud like in house (also in the middle of a word or at the end of a word). Write a small drop, about as high as Bā. At the beginning of the word, write a line of paint as in Dāl and a curl that touches this line of paint. In the middle of the word, draw a loop above and below the baseline. At the end of a word, write another drop. ه ه ه ه hello [ahlan] ا ه لا ٢٥ 25

13 The feminine ending Tā Marbūţa Tā Marbūţa [a] is the ending of feminine words and is pronounced like a in algebra, often also like e in rose. It has the same basic form as Hā and two dots above the letter. ة ة ل غ ة [luġa] Language 28. Wāw (*) Wāw can stand for two sounds. [w] is a w formed with the lips as in English. water and [ū] a long u as in well. With the preceding Fatỏa, the diphthong [au] is formed as in Auto. Write a 9, the squiggle is on the baseline and the rest is below it. The letter ends here and is not connected to the following letter. End / middle و coffee [qahwa] ق ه وة light [nūr] ن ور round trip [ğaula] ج و لة start / isolated و Hamza [] in some cases also uses Wāw, which then serves as a carrier letter and has no sound value of its own . س و ال [su āl] Question 29. Yā Yā also stands for two sounds. [y] is pronounced like in Jäger and [ī] like long i in never. With the preceding Fatỏa the diphthong [ai] is formed, which is often pronounced like long e in See.Write an S sloping slightly to the right with a larger lower part and put two periods below the letter. At the beginning and in the middle of the word, write the same basic form as for Bā and at the end of the word write the S again, which goes below the baseline. ي ي ي ي Germany [almānyā] ا ل مان يا 26 ٢٦

14 in [fī] ف ي house, apartment [bait] ب ي ت Hamza [] in some cases also sits on Yā, which then loses its points and has no sound value of its own. ا س ي لة [as ila] questions (pl.) A Yā written without dots at the end of the word is called Alif Maqśūra and is pronounced as a long [ā]. ا ل ى [ilā] bis, zu, nach ت 3, The article 4 In Arabic there is only one article, namely ال [al-]. It is always written together with the word. There is no indefinite article like in German (ein, eine). ب ي ت [bait] a house, an apartment الب ي ت [al-bait] the house, the apartment The alif of the article is usually associated with preceding vowels in pronunciation. في الب ي ت l-bait] in the house, in the apartment [fi ت 3, sun and moon letters 4 The lām of the article is not included in front of the so-called sun letters and instead the sun letter is doubled. Here is an overview of the sun letters: t-loud ت ث ط d-loud د ذ ض s-loud ز س ش ص ظ other ر ل ن the sun [aš-šams] ال شم س the man [ar-rağul] ال رج ل [as-salām] the peace ال سلام the light [an-nūr] الن ور ٢٧ 27

15 For all other letters, the lām of the article is pronounced. These letters are called moon letters. ي و ه م ك ق ف غ ع خ ح ج ب ا الغ ر ب Occident [al-ġarb] the west, the الق م ر [al-qamar] the moon الع ر ب [al-arab] the Arabs الا خ بار [al-aốbār] the news spelling punctuation marks are also used in Arabic, but there are no hard and fast rules. Note the spelling of the comma () () and the question mark, which differs from German, words that only consist of a single letter, such as the conjunction. [wa] and, never stand alone. They are always with the following word و ال شر ق والغ ر ب wa-l-ġarb] the east and the west; the Orient and the Occident [aš-šarq In addition to the ligature Lām-Alif (cf. 24), other letters can also be combined to ensure a better flow of writing. E.g. in the following spellings: ligature basic form love [al-ỏubb] الحب الحب ا لمانيا ا لمانيا [almānyā] Germany نحن نحن [naỏnu] we محم د محم د [muỏيال] محم م م] [muỏيال] Moỏammed جميل مت ỏ ي ٢٨

16 عبارات مفيدة ا خرى ت 2 In Germany we use Arabic numbers, whereas in the Arab world, especially in the Middle East and on the Arabian Peninsula, Indian numerals are used. In the case of multi-digit numbers, the reading direction is from left to right, as in German. ٠ null [śifr] ص ف ر ١ one [wāỏid] واح د ٢ two [iŧnain] ا ث ن ي ن ٣ three [ŧalāŧa] ث لاثة ٤ four [arba a] ا ر ب عة ٥ five [ốamsa مة ٦ six [sitta] س ت ة ٧ seven [sab a] س ب عة ٨ eight [ŧamānya] ث م ان ية ٩ nine [tis a] ت س عة ١٠ ten [ašara] ع ش رة في العامية Arabic is not the same . Although the written language is the same in all Arab countries, there are considerable differences between the dialects of individual countries. Here are some examples of pronunciation variants: The letter Ŧā is spoken in many dialects [t]. ا ت ن ي ن [itnain] two The letter Ğīm is spoken in Syria [ğ], in Egypt [g] and in the Gulf countries [y]. ج ميل [yamīl] beautiful [ğamīl], [gamīl], The letter Qāf is spoken in some regions [q], in Cairo and Damascus like Hamza, and in Jordan and the Gulf countries [g]. ق ه وة [gahwa] coffee [qahwa], [ahwa], short vowels (a, i, u) can vary. ف ل س طين ف ل س طين [falasţīn] Palestine [filasţīn], ٢٩ 29

17 The letters at a glance Name (*) Alif ا ل ف ا ا ا ا Bā باء ب ب ب ب Tā تاء ت ت ت ت تā ثاء ث ث ث ث Ğīm جيāم ج ج ج جا ā حخ ح ح ح خ خ خ خ (*) Dāl دال د د د د (*) Ồāl ذال ذ ذ ذ ذ (*) Rā راء ر ر ر ر (*) Zāy زاي ز ز ز ز Sīn سين س س س س ش ش Śād صاد ص ص ص ص Ỗād ضاد ض ض ض ض Ţā طاء ط ط ط ط Żā ظاء ظ ظ ظ ظ Ain ع ي ن ع ع ع ع 30 ٣٠

18 Name Ġain غ ي ن غ غ غ غ Fā فاء ف ف ف ف Qāf قاف ق ق ق ق Kāf كاف ك ك ك ك Lām لاهم ل ل ل ل ل Mīm ميم م م ن ن ن ن م Nو ن ن ن ن م Nو ن ه ه (*) Wāw واو و و و و Yā ياء ي ي ي ي (*) letter is not combined with the following. التمارين 1 Match the country names to the romanization and look for them on the map on the start page of this lesson. [miśr] a. 1. الا ردن [al- irāq] b. 2. المغرب [al-maġrib] c. 3. عمان [al-urdunn] d. 4. سوريا [sūriyā] e. 5. العراق [umān] f. 6. مصر ٣١ 31

19 2 Write the year in Arabic numerals .... ١٩٥١ ١٩٦٣ ٢٠٠٧ ١٦٤٣ ١٩۸٥ 4. ١٩٩٩ 2. 3 Where is the lām of the article not included? Tick ​​it. 1. السعودية 3. السودان 5. البحرين 2. الجزاي ر 4. النور 6. الشمس 4 Write the words with article..5 صباح .3 خبز .1 درس .6 سلام .4 ا Connect the Letters to words ... باب ب + ا + ب س + ل + ا + م و + ا + ح + د ص + ب + ا + ح ا + ل + م + ا + ن + ي + ا ا + ل + ا + م + ا + ر + ا + ت 6 Which six letters are not connected with the following letter? Put in the auxiliary symbols. 1. ش ك را [šukran] 3. جولة [ğaula] 5. لغة [luġa] 2. ا لى [ilā] 4. ا هلا [ahlan] 6. ا حب [uỏibb] 32 ٣٢