Which expression is correct
Separate and summarize - do it right!
Even years after its introduction, it still causes confusion: the new spelling. In many cases it is not clear what is the exception and what is the rule. Especially with the Separate and combined writing Finding the correct wording is often a gamble. An example? The word “write separately” is written separately. Wouldn't the opposite then have to be “write together”? Unfortunately not. Correct is: "write together". Do not let yourself be chased into the fenugreek! We'll tell you some important rules for separating and summarizing.
Verb and verb like to join: "go shopping"
One of the simplest compositions is that of two activity words or verbs, such as “learn to read” or “go shopping”. They are usually written apart. However, connections with the verbs “let” or “remain” are an exception. They often have a transposed meaning. The expression "let hang" z. B. can not only be understood literally, but also in the sense of "abandoning someone". In such cases, separate and combined writing is equally possible. However, if you do not want to worry your head unnecessarily, it is best to follow the Duden recommendation and also write these words separately. You are not doing anything wrong with this.
Extra tip: It is different with the word "get to know". Here, too, both variants are possible, but the Duden recommends combining them.
The combination of adjective and verb: "finely chop"
Verbs also appear as the second component of a connection with adjectives (adjectives). Examples are the expressions “chop finely” or “throw up”. The rule here is: If the adjective describes the result of the activity that the verb describes, it is possible to write separately and together. However, this only applies to simple adjectives. Combinations with adjectives, e.g. B. are extended are always written separately: "finer chop". The same applies if the verb of the combination itself is already put together: "get up late".
The combination of adjective and verb often results in a new meaning that cannot be read from the individual meanings of the components. These words are always written together. An example is the word “credit” (“We will credit you the amount.”) As opposed to “write well” (“She can write well”).
Extra tip: If you cannot clearly see whether a combination of adjective and verb has a new meaning, you can write it separately or together. If in doubt, take a look at the dictionary.
The rules for separating and combining participles, i.e. middle words, are similar to those for adjectives. They are also only written together if a new overall meaning results from the combination. If not, write separately. The word "write separately" is itself a good example - it does not create a new meaning and is therefore written separately.
Participles - the choice is yours: "Awakening trust" / "Awakening trust"
The dreaded middle words or participles can also appear as the second part of a compound. Since participles always represent forms of a verb, it makes sense to use the underlying verb as a guide when writing. The participle “Trust arousing” is derived from “Awakening trust” and is therefore written separately like this. This also applies if you form a noun from the participle, e.g. B. write: "the measures to inspire confidence". To make the confusion perfect, the new spelling does not specify this as a rule, but allows for such connections to be spelled together. If you are unsure and do not want to decide for yourself, you should look up and follow the Duden recommendation for the respective word.
However, there are also compositions with a participle as a second component, for which only the summary applies. This is the case when the first component stands for a group of words. This rule sounds complicated, but if you listen to your sense of language, it's easy to follow. An example: In contrast to the above-mentioned combination of noun and participle, “arousing trust”, the combination “radiant joy” does not go back to “radiate joy”, but to the expression “radiate with joy”, the first part of which is from the group of words “before Joy ”exists. Would you like more examples? “Filled with fear” does not go back to “filling fear”, but rather to “filled with fear”. And "heart-quickening" does not come from "heart refreshing", but from "heart refreshing".
With the adverb, a simple test helps: "sit down" / "sit down"
The spelling of words like “sit down” or “sit down” is particularly tricky. The word “here” can either be a verb addition or a circumstance word, a so-called adverb. Combinations with verb attachments are written together, while connections with adverbs are written separately.
Depending on which form it is, the compound word has a different meaning:
- "Inga will sit there." This sentence means that Inga will sit at the table with others.
- "Inga will sit there". This sentence, however, means that Inga does not stand or lie down during an activity, but rather sits.
There are two simple ways you can tell the difference and decide whether to split a word or write it together.
- Extension test: In the case of a combination of a verb and an adverb that is written separately, you can easily insert additional expressions, e.g. For example: "Inga will sit very comfortably." But if the word has to be written together, that is not possible - then you have to put the additional words in front: "Inga will definitely sit still."
- Stress test: You can usually tell the difference by the stress. When “sitting there”, the emphasis is on “there”. In the expression “sit there”, both components are emphasized equally. Unfortunately, this doesn't always work, as the following comparison shows: “You wanted to fire him, but he opposed it” and: “The door stays open if you put a chair against it.” In both cases, the emphasis is on “against it ".
By the way: From the rule that verbs with verb additions have to be written together, there is the curious difference between the words "write together" and "write separately". As you have already seen, the latter is a combination of participle and verb and is therefore written separately. The situation is different with “writing together”. Intuitively, you would probably write it in exactly the same way as "write separately," that is, separately. However, this is not correct. “Together” is not a participle, but an addition to a verb. That is why the summation applies to “write together”. Sounds complicated? Just remember the following donkey bridge: “Writing together” is written together and “Writing separately” is written separately.
With "sein" it must always be hyphenated
An unambiguous rule applies to combinations with the word “to be” and its various forms (e.g. “was”, “has been”). These are always written separately: “You have to be more behind in these important processes.” “I will not be there on Friday.” But be careful: If you substantiate the composition, so if you form a noun, you must of course capitalize and capitalize : "I will not be there on Friday", but: "He leads a poor existence."
Separate and aggregate noun and verb: "drink coffee" but "skate"
Verbs are often combined with nouns, i.e. main words. For the separate and combined spelling, the decisive factor here is whether the noun in the connection has retained its independence or whether its meaning in connection with the verb has faded. For combinations with nouns that are not faded, such as “drink coffee”, the following applies: You must separate the noun and capitalize it. If the noun is no longer independent, you have to write in lower and lower case. The Duden gives the example of “ice skating”.
In some cases of doubt, both spellings are possible, e.g. B. “Pay attention” / “Pay attention”, “stop” / “stop” and “keep to measure” / “keep moderate”.
As you can see, it is difficult to apply this rule: it is often difficult to understand whether a noun is independent or faded. Therefore our tip: It is best to make a list of words that you have already looked up for the separate and combined spelling.
"Zurzeit" and "zu Ende": What applies to prepositions and nouns?
The case is similar with combinations of prepositions (prepositions) and nouns such as “zurzeit” or “zu Ende”. Here, too, the independence of the noun decides on the spelling. However, the rule applies that you have to write separately if the meaning of the noun has not yet faded: "to the end". If nouns are no longer independent, you have to write them together, because they have already become prepositions or adverbs: “at present”.
Extra tip: With many words, it is not clear whether the noun has already faded. Separate and combined writing is equally permissible here: "in favor" or "in favor". However, if such words appear together with a verb, you need to split the new phrase: “go home” or “go home”.
When two adjectives come together: "Blue gray"
Compounds of two equal (sibling) adjectives such as “blue-gray” are written together. Because: In contrast to combinations such as “greenish yellow”, the first component does not modify the second, but both elements contribute equally to the meaning of the word. Further examples of such combined adjectives: "blue-gray", "green-blue", "dumbdreist", "wet and cold", "moist and warm" and "deaf and dumb".
Sometimes, however, such connections are confusing. Then you have to put a hyphen. This applies e.g. B. for combinations of adjectives derived from country names such as "Franco-German friendship" or "German-Austrian affairs". Examples from other areas are “scientific-technical progress”, “a Latin-German dictionary”, “manic-depressive behavior” or “physical-chemical-biological processes”.
Extra tip: Based on the above rule, guess what: does it have to be “easy to understand” or “easy to understand”? You are probably now intuitively saying: Of course together! And you are right about that. But the surprise is: In this case the hyphenation is also correct. Because "easy to understand" / "easy to understand" is a word in which the first adjective has "graduate" meaning. “Graduating” means: There is a pair of opposites z. B. "easy to understand" / "easy to understand" and "difficult to understand" / "difficult to understand". But be careful, trap! If the first component of the composition - the adjective - is expanded or increased, it is only written separately. The only correct answer is: "easier to understand" and "harder to understand".
Reinforcement and weakening of adjectives: "Brand new"
In advertising in particular, you will often come across creative compositions in which the meaning of an adjective as a second component is reinforced or weakened by the first component. Such connections are written together. The reinforcing or weakening elements can be combined with a whole series of adjectives, here are just a few examples: "bitterly bad", "brand new", "dark blue", "ultra-conservative", "extra wide", "mega strong".
With adjectives with “not” you can decide for yourself
Whenever the word “not” comes together with an adjective or participle as a second component, you can decide for yourself whether to write separately or together. "Not official" is just as correct as "not official", you can write "not public" as well as "non-public".
A joint element requires writing together: "takes getting used to"
There are a number of connections with adjectives or participles in which there is a so-called joint element between the components - a sound that actually only serves to make the compound form easier to pronounce. You have to write such words together. In the word “habituationsneedy "z. B. the joint element is the "s" between "getting used to" and "needy." Other words with joint elements are “oldersweak "," supportsneedy ”,“ fusionsconditional "," livesstrange "," sunnpoor "and" werbeeffective".
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