What are the demonstrative pronouns in Portuguese

This here, this there, that there - the demonstrative pronouns in Brazilian Portuguese

In Portuguese there are three different indicative pronouns (also called demonstrative pronouns). The distinction between the three types is not so easy for German native speakers at first. But we will explain the differences to you now:

Take a look at the following small diagram:

A Portuguese & how he sees the world:
[eu] [e] [uma coisa]


isto aquiisso aí
-----------> this one

-----------------> This there
-------------------------------------> that there

In Portuguese you have to distinguish how far an object you want to point out is from the speaker.

If he is very close to the speaker, “isto” is used.
If it is further away from the speaker, "isso" is used.
If the object is very far away from the speaker, one says "aquilo".

Isto é a minha bola. This is my ball. [It's right next to me.]
Isso é o meu carro. This is my car. [It's a little way off.]
Aquilo são os meus óculos. Those over there are my glasses. [She is far from me.]

Please note:
One makes this distinction just at Objects.
Once you get over people speaks, one always uses "isso“.

These three demonstrative pronouns also have mutable forms. Thanks to these variable forms, they can be matched to their reference word in terms of number (singular or plural) and grammatical gender (male or female).

Variable forms of demonstrative pronouns

The variable forms of demonstrative pronouns can be found in this table:

The changeable forms of demonstrative pronouns
masculine forms in the singularfeminine forms in the singular
este eat aquele esta essa aquela
masculine forms in the pluralfeminine forms in the plural
estes esses aqueles estas essas aquelas

What else should you know about these mutable forms?

The mutable demonstrative pronouns merge with prepositions

If you use these demonstrative pronouns together with the prepositions “a” (dt. An, auf, bei, in, nach, um, zu), “de” (dt. From, for, with, from) and “em” (dt. auf, an, in) used, both merge with each other and form a new word.

the preposition
the demonstrative pronoun becomes:
a + aquele àquele
de + este least
de + eat desse
de + aquele daquele
em + este nests
em + eat nesse
em + aquele naquele

A little exercise for you:
The female forms and the plural forms are created according to the same pattern in the table above. Please now create the missing female forms.

We have also put together some examples for you of the variable shapes:

O cozinheiro least restaurante (no qual nós estamos agora) é muito famous. The chef thisRestaurants (that we are currently sitting in) is very famous.
O cozinheiro desse restaurante (da próxima cidade) é muito famous. The cook of this restaurant (in the next village) is very famous.
O cozinheiro daquele restaurante (em Pequim) é muito famous. The cook of thatrestaurant (in Beijing) is very famous.

In the next chapter you will deal with the relative pronouns in Portuguese.