When was the media balance historically balanced?

Basic course in natural and cultural interpretation documentation INA Vilm Jan. 2004


1 Basic Course Nature and Culture Interpretation Documentation INA Vilm Jan In cooperation with

2 Documentation Bildungswerk interpretation Am Rasen Werleshausen Tel .: / Fax: / Mail: Web: Organizer EUROPARC Deutschland e.v. Marienstr Berlin Tel .: 0 30 / Fax: 0 30 / Mail: Web: europarc-deutschland.de Funded by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation with funds from the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety Photo credits of the photos provided by the participants Margitta Jendrzejewski: 31 and Elfi Laack: Title o., 15 u., 26 u., 29, 31 o., 34, 40 ur Rüdiger Meyer: 26 o., 32, 37 o., 37 m., 40 ul, 40 o., 41 o. Henning Möller: Title background, 37 and Anne Spiegel: Title m., 2, 14 o., 27 , 30 (2x), 33, 34 and, 35 (2x), 36, 41 and, 47 2


4 Program, course and perspectives The basic course in the interpretation of nature and culture is based on the training concept for interpretation rangers in the US National Park Service. The evaluation results of the public relations and environmental education teaching units of the certified nature and landscape conservationist in Saxony and the one-week TOPAS pilot course Basic Interpretive Skills, which took place in the Harz National Park in 2003, were then incorporated. This accumulation of content - on the one hand due to the increased demand during the planning period and on the other hand due to technical support reasons - posed the greatest challenge for the trainer as well as for the participants in the course of the course. The harsh weather conditions were also not to be neglected. Around 50% of the training sessions took place outdoors in permafrost and strong winds, and not all participants were appropriately dressed. On the other hand, however, there was the island of Vilm, which, in its seclusion, took five days Sometimes very different people grew together to form a happy and productive working group, which at the same time meant that all participants could concentrate fully on the content of the course. Rügen landscape with rainbow the painting by Caspar David Friedrich, which shows the island of Vilm in the middle distance, symbolizes in an impressive way what the nature and culture interpretation is about, and what it was about during the course. It was about building a bridge between people and their natural and cultural heritage. It was about the question of how the messages that emanate from our natural and cultural landscapes find their addressees. And how we can succeed in binding people permanently and responsibly to their natural and cultural heritage through the way these messages are conveyed. The basic course in the interpretation of nature and culture has achieved a lot in this regard. But it can only bear fruit if what was initiated in the five days is further developed in the protected areas. The following would serve this goal: 1. A continuous training program which, in particular, promotes the professionalization of the work of full-time employees in the protected areas. 2. a working group, which meets periodically, which defines the quality standards for interpretation in nature conservation, 3. building on this, developing supervision programs and uniform training programs for seasonal workers, and finally 4. granting freedom for a contemporary interpretation of nature and culture, such as those from the US National Park Service is maintained by the sanctuary manager. The TOPAS course and the basic course in nature and culture interpretation on Vilm were the first building blocks. Most of the work in the protected areas still lies ahead of us. 4th

5 Scope of the program A total of 47 seminar units of 45 minutes each are available for the course. Within this framework, the following content should be treated with the following expenditure of time: Topics Scope Key points Basics of interpretation The participants learn how interpretation has developed, what role it v. a .. for nature conservation plays what distinguishes it from other concepts. You will familiarize yourself with essential knowledge about communication and creativity. Personal interpretation The participants practice translating the language of the phenomena for the visitor - first in short interpretations, then in interpretive walks over several stations. Medial interpretation The participants design texts and tables as models, practice using language and symbols and deal with the requirements of designed interpretation spaces and paths. Communication & conflict management The participants uncover their own communication strategies, rethink them and develop them further. In role-playing games, they practice reconciling contradicting views with their own positions without giving up. Presentation - Supervision - Evaluation In project groups, the participants develop concepts for an interpretation walk, an interpretation path or an interpretation center from a topic of their choice and implement them as models. The models are evaluated together. 5

6 Program planning Monday, (4 SE) Concept of the interpretation of nature and culture Impulse: Goethe by o'clock Arrival / organizational information o'clock Introduction of the trainer Introduction of the participants I will tell you who you are ... in pairs preparation for a mutual introduction (15 min. ) mutual introduction (2 min. each) presentation of the course program o'clock dinner o'clock From the roots of interpretation to the tasks of the rangers in the US National Park Service (ppt) o'clock How does interpretation work? (ppt) Explanation of the interpretation triangle Meaning of various questions for the integration of visitors Meaning of stepping stones Clock End of program Tuesday, (13 SE) Personal forms I (short interpretations) Impulse: Hesse clock Breakfast clock Bringing an old tree up (short interpretation with criticism) Clock Training conferences to individual phenomena in nature I see ... (The participants describe what they see without interpretation.) That ... looks like ... (The participants try to find comparisons.) That ... tells me that ... (The PT are looking for personal parables.) I would like to know ... (The PT ask themselves questions about the phenomenon.) How does it feel ... from below? (Participants formulate focus questions.) Fields of interpretation (Participants observe from different perspectives) Connections (Participants combine phenomena with other phenomena.) Facial expressions and gestures (Interpretation for a hearing impaired person) Description (Interpretation for a visually impaired person.) Message (Participants formulate I- Messages of the phenomenon.) Main idea (participants develop a main idea from the messages) o'clock collection of powerful key terms (magic words) preparation for the development of their own short interpretations o'clock coffee break o'clock four groups each work out a short interpretation o'clock lunch and lunch break 6

7 am Preparation of the presentations am Presentation of the four short interpretations am Coffee break am What is perception and how does it work? Individual peculiarities in the perception of natural phenomena Changes in perception (forester, pastor, researcher, ...) Clock My role in communication with the visitor Who am I and where am I as an interpreter? Which institution do I represent and what does it represent? Which of our qualities should we cultivate? When do we work convincingly? (Standogram) What promotes communication, what inhibits communication? How should our communication change? Development of personal communication strategies Clock dinner Clock Interpretation tools Mirrors, tubes, magnifying glasses, binoculars, frames, cords, flags, ...

8 am lunch and lunch break am presentation, supervision and evaluation of the first interpretation walk (video) pm presentation, supervision and evaluation of the second interpretation walk (video) pm coffee break pm What are the roles of the protected area supervisors? How can these roles be expanded and changed? How do we deal with conflicts? Review of the day and outlook for the coming day: Dinner: Role play based on current problems from the protected areas: End of program Thursday, (11 + 2 SE) Medial interpretation I (panels, paths and rooms) Impulse: Eichendorff (or Tucholsky) Breakfast: Four types of panels - what makes a text understandable? (Simplicity, brevity, conciseness, coherence, structure, stimulus) Notes on the development of blackboard texts (sample module, ppt) Clock Creativity techniques for brainstorming (impulse presentation with exercises) Clock Coffee break Clock Developing and setting up a blackboard text (ILS module) for eight phenomena Clock Presentation of the board texts clock texts, boards, action elements Comments on the design of media (balance, reading order, proportions, contrast, free space) design of advertisements (max. 5 elements, central ideas, reference to the viewer) Keyword uniform appearance: the ILS grid for boards / print media Compared to the US National Park Service's Unigrid System O'clock Lunch and Lunch Break O'clock What types of trails are there? (Flip) Introduction to the design of paths Closed paths and through paths Example: Waldschlucht Uhr Interpretation path We develop a model of an interpretation path (two groups, four stations each) 8

9What will I use in my daily work? End of the course (lunch optional, the ferry leaves at noon) The sequences shown take place in the open air. 9

10 Course of the event 1st day of the course: Monday, January 19th, 2004 After the welcome by EUROPARC Germany (Axel Tscherniak) and the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (Gisela Stolpe) as well as the introduction of the trainer (Thorsten Ludwig, Bildungswerk interpretation) and the program, the Participants in the introductory round together in pairs. In parallel one-on-one conversations, the partners of the respective couples first get to know each other. Your task is then to present each other in a dignified manner in front of the plenum. Two minutes are available for each presentation. In the evaluation, the presentation of a person is compared with that of a natural or cultural object. It is asked which information was in the foreground and how it was conveyed, whereby it contributed to a dignified presentation. After dinner, the background of the concept of nature and culture interpretation is explained by means of a PowerPoint presentation 1. The historical perspective begins in the USA in the first half of the 19th century. It describes the emergence of the transcendentalism founded by RALPH WALDO EMERSON () and HENRY DAVID THOREAU () as a counter-movement against the all too unscrupulous submission of humans (indigenous population, slavery) and nature (making the rivers navigable, building railways). THOREAU stands for the approach of Learning by Doing 2, the consistent approach to nature through direct experience of nature, although he himself only exposed himself to nature in his hut on Walden Lake for a few months. The natural experiences of the Californian by choice JOHN MUIR () were far more extensive. He was a contemporary of ERNST RUDORFF and is considered the founder of nature conservation in the USA (foundation of the Sierra Club, initiation of Yosemite National Park). As a personal friend of President THEODORE ROOSEVELT, he promoted the national park idea, JOHN MUIR wrote in his notebook in the Yosemite Valley: I'll interpret the rocks, learn the language of flood, storm and the avalanche. I ll acquaint myself with the glaciers and wild gardens and get as near to the heart of the world as I can. 3 Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau John Muir 1 see history.ppt on the CD and course manual Text 1 2 Learning by doing 3 I translate the rocks, learn the language of the storm tides and the avalanches. I get to know the glaciers and wild gardens and get as close to the heart of the world as I can. 10

11 As in the German language, the term interpretation has many different meanings in the English language. The primary importance is that of translating a language. CHARLES DARWIN and MARK TWAIN have already used the term sporadically in the sense of translating the language of nature, but not in such an intensive reference to their own personality. A younger friend of JOHN MUIR's was ENOS MILLS (). He was from Kansas but moved to the Rocky Mountains at a young age, where he had lived in a cabin in the mountains since 1886. MILLS is considered to be the initiator of the Rocky Mountain National Park. He made a living from guiding visitors through the area and expanded the concept of interpretation to the extent that he switched from an individual observation of nature to a nature guide for third parties (A nature guide is an interpreter). 4 In this field he made many contributions. He founded a Trail School 5, first trained boys from the surrounding villages and then around 1920 (!) - the first women to become national park guides, whereby the certification was taken over by the hotels in the national park region. Unfortunately, the US National Park Service MILLS failed to embrace nature management ideas. There they tried to approach the educational mandate of the national parks from the scientific point of view. So it was left to someone else to introduce interpretation - only 20 years later as a concept of caring for visitors to the National Park Service. That other one was the journalist FREEMAN TILDEN (). TILDEN originally toured the parks with the task of documenting the work of the National Park Service for advertising purposes. However, due to his justified criticism of this work (which was initially called the Park Naturalist Service and since 1940 officially Interpretation) he was entrusted with the development of a new concept in the 1940s. The result was his 1957 book Interpreting Our Heritage. Heritage Interpretation 6 defined TILDEN as an educational activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships through the use of original objects, by firsthand experience, and by illustrative media, rather than simply to communicate factual information. 7 The core of his considerations formed the six principles of interpretation 8: 1. Interpretation remains fruitless if it does not relate what is to be presented to the personality or the experiences of the visitor. Enos Mills Freeman Tilden 4 A nature guide is a translator 5 School by the wayside 6 literally: translation of our natural and cultural heritage 7 an educational process that - instead of just passing on factual knowledge, reveals meanings and contexts using original objects, through first-hand experience and intended with illustrative means. 8 Original version see Appendix II 11

12 Basic Course in Nature and Culture Interpretation 2. Interpretation and information are not the same. Interpretation is a form of discovery that is always based on facts. 3. Interpretation is an art that requires different skills - regardless of whether it is about scientific, historical or other topics. 4. Interpretation wants to challenge the visitor to think and act for himself; it's not about teaching him. 5. Interpretation conveys wholes, not parts. Interpretation accordingly perceives the visitor as a whole person. 6. Interpretation for children up to the age of approximately twelve years is not just a modification of the offers for adults. It follows a fundamentally different approach and requires its own program. Interpretation was not a value-neutral concept from the start. Rather, it was about establishing close relationships between people and their nature or culture, and thus encouraging them to act in order to preserve their natural and cultural heritage. On the basis of the six principles of interpretation, the National Park Service consistently expanded its range of interpretations. Educational programs for children and young people, living history events, campfire programs and lectures in amphitheatres such as those set up in almost all protected areas, as well as various special events (e.g. night activities or interpretation dives) were soon added to interpretation walks and trails in West Virginia Mather Training Center opened, the task of which is to train the interpretive rangers in the parks, and in 1970 the neighboring Harpers Ferry Center was added, which produces nationwide brochures and boards according to the uniform Unigrid system. If you want to become an Interpretive Ranger in the National Park Service today, you have to meet a number of requirements. First and foremost is the inner attitude to this activity, to the entrusted area and to the visitors. Building on this, the individual remuneration levels are defined directly via the services to be provided at these levels. Theoretically, the levels are open to all applicants, both upwards and downwards. Ranger is the second most popular occupation in the United States among children and teenagers. Although the remuneration is not very high, the rush is great. Many rangers start as volunteers or work seasonally, and they are usually accommodated in the protected areas free of charge. On the other hand, there are also highly qualified workers (such as professors) who work as simple rangers in a protected area during the season. Although the National Park Service has contributed significantly to the development of the concept of nature and cultural interpretation, its use in the USA has by no means been restricted to this agency. The US 9 Ranger in the US National Park Service Living History 12

13 Forest Service of the Federal Ministry of Forestry, the Fish and Wildlife Service and the Bureau of Land Management, which administers ruderal areas as well as numerous state and city parks at state level, also have their own departments for interpretation. Interpretation is also widespread as a visitor-indoor communication concept in zoos, museums and botanical gardens. Outside of the USA with approx. Professional interpreters, most of the interpreters are employed in Canada (approx. 1000), Australia (approx. 500) and Great Britain (approx. 300). The concept is enjoying growing popularity in Latin America and some Asian countries, and in Europe the European Network for Nature and Culture Interpretation was launched in 2000. Evaluation of the PowerPoint presentation The presentation is carried out by the participants i. a. received very positively, but occasionally also arouses criticism. The question of whether Germany actually has nothing to offer in this field is followed by the comment that there is no point in acquiring the wide-ranging skills of an interpretation ranger, because they are anyway against the background of the situation in the protected areas could never be used. Unscheduled, this criticism leads to a lengthy debate on the situation of the rangers in the protected areas. The lecture How does interpretation work? for this reason it is postponed to the 2nd day of the course. Interpretation on the Internet in Germany: Bildungswerk interpretation: Center for Landscape Interpretation and Tourism: Project TransInterpret: worldwide: European Network for Nature and Culture Interpretation Association for Heritage Interpretation (UK): Scottish Interpret. Network: National Association for Interpretation (USA): Interpretation Canada: Interpretation Australia Association: 13

14 2nd day of the course: Tuesday, January 20th, 2004 The presentation How does the interpretation, which could not be shown the day before, will be postponed until later in the morning To work out natural phenomena. On the one hand, this involves deepening the interpreter's relationship to the phenomena, and on the other hand, exercises to prepare central ideas, an attribute that characterizes the interpretation of nature and culture. Both exercises take place in a wooded area characterized by a high proportion of old wood. All participants receive a postcard and a picture frame for the first exercise and are asked to look for an attractive phenomenon in their surroundings, to familiarize themselves within ten minutes with sketching what is special about this phenomenon with pastel chalk. Afterwards the participants get together in pairs. One partner in each case presents his / her phenomenon to the other and explains to what extent it appealed to him / her in particular. The listener has the task of summarizing the highlighted aspect in a short sentence. The partners then proceed in exactly the same way in reverse (2x5 min.). Finally, all participants come together again in a large group. They carry the pictures of their respective partners with them and are asked to show them in turn and to present the sentence worked out for them. Some of these sentences worked out by the participants are: This is where the stones move (windthrow, root plate). The ephemeral becomes clear in old age. The apparently dead is full of life. Although the birch trees grow faster, the beech trees prevail. The ephemeral impresses with its beauty. The old foundation is seized by living things. Even an old, sick tree can still be useful. Old wounds tear open. How much life do you think has passed by that tree? The living dead: A dead tree is full of life. The beechnut is like so many people: hard shell, soft core. A small beechnut has become a big tree. I stand in an inconspicuous but sacred place. In a second exercise, I-messages are attached to an old oak tree or its inhabitants. What could the oak / its components / its inhabitants say if they could talk? The following messages are collected: I have a thick skin. 14th

15 In the cold, I'd like to have my entire bark back. I am deeply rooted !!! I am happy. I destroy in secret. The mushroom. I, the little worm - what a dream - live here in this tree. My bark is old and cracked, but I offer protection for everyone. I am an oak. I, the worm, don't have to go out into the cold ha, ha, ha! I've already talked to Honecker. I am part of a food chain. I am a nocturnal resting place for birds. I, the bud, wait for spring. I, the little mouse-eared mouse, use this tree hole as a summer apartment. I live and live by and on this tree. As a bark, I try to protect my tree. I would still like to be complete. The bark I feel good on the northwest side! Pit Pilz and Agathe Alge live here and who are you? Will I ever see the light again? The overwhelmed stone In the evaluation, on the one hand, the messages are determined that are most likely to be further developed into concise central ideas. On the other hand, the meaning and the problem of animating nature is discussed. It is important that the messages of the phenomena remain the messages that the interpreters (or the visitors) hear from the phenomena. How does interpretation work? After these preliminary exercises, the presentation from the previous day is made up for, but it is not presented as a PowerPoint presentation 10 as intended, but is developed on the pin board based on the experiences from the preliminary exercises. The most important model of the interpretation of nature and culture is the interpretation triangle 11. Its cornerstones are the phenomenon of the visitor / the interpreter. The process of interpretation unfolds within these corner points. What is the significance of the individual cornerstones? The Phenomenon Without the immediate presence of a phenomenon 12, interpretation is inconceivable. For many people involved in nature conservation, this must sound banal: If we discover a heron at the nest during a tour, the interpretation triangle 10 see concept.ppt on CD 11 see course manual text see course manual text 13 15

16 then of course the phenomenon is immediately present. - But first we have to be aware of this advantage. In most places where education is sought v. a. In our schools and universities, the subject that is actually at issue has been more and more suppressed. Objectification and abstraction predominate here, as MARTIN WAGENSCHEIN in his passionate essay Save the Phenomena! (WAGENSCHEIN, 1976) 13 has set out. Of course, abstraction v. a. scientific work undeniable advantages. For example when it comes to models of thought that should be transferable to other situations; or just when an encounter with the phenomena - think of school lessons - is out of the question for technical or organizational reasons. We are not faced with this problem in the interpretation of nature and culture. It's not about exact research. It is also not about simply passing on factual knowledge about a subject or working through a curriculum. Interpretation wants to do more than just inform; she would like to fascinate to a certain extent. And for this we need the direct encounter with the phenomenon. She's our first ace in the game. But how do we play it out in such a way that it leaves as deep an impact as possible on the visitors? Which of our facts are really meaningful for the visitor in his / her living environment? Which ones fascinate him / her? If ecological facts remain general, they hardly bring the visitor closer to the bird that suddenly soars in front of them, the old tree that stands by the roadside. On the contrary: the surprising moment in which the visitor opens up to the phenomenon is put on a more sober basis by means of factual information. The visitor is brought back to the bottom of the facts, so to speak. The phenomenon then helps us to get rid of a range of information. But that does not mean that the experience and the possibilities of knowledge that it holds for the visitor are far from exhausted. The same applies to an educational trail board, for example with the evocative title Die Birke - and with a text that could be found in any nature guide. Such a board is comparatively inexpensive because it is consistent from Schleswig-Holstein to Bavaria and can therefore be produced in large numbers. But this advantage is also their greatest disadvantage. General information rarely gets under your skin, as it can neither refer to the situation of the one birch tree in this specific location nor to the situation of the visitors. But how can the birch be grasped in this way? Just look for nothing behind the phenomena, they themselves are the doctrine. Goethe 13 complete quotation see literature list course manual 16

17 If we were to work out a blackboard text, the first question would be what messages our birch tree sends out. WILLFRIED JANSSEN and GERHARD TROMMER have defined different fields of interpretation for this; different perspectives, so to speak, from which we can look at our tree (JANSSEN, 1990 and TROMMER, 1991) 14. In addition, the tree is not only involved in natural history contexts. For us and for the visitors - it often has a much deeper meaning on the aesthetic or symbolic level. We should keep all of this in mind when facing the tree to grasp its messages. Which of these messages are most likely to do justice to the birch tree in its location? are meaningful for the visitors in their living environment? are important to us or to our facility? The interpretation of nature and culture therefore deliberately goes beyond the range of supposedly objective facts and knowledge of an object. It overcomes the scientific distance and includes the area of ​​subjective values ​​and attitudes that both our visitors and we ourselves associate with the phenomena. Because because the tree does not really speak to us, the messages of the tree can only reproduce what we ourselves - consciously or unconsciously - perceive. The visitor In all personal methods of interpreting nature and culture in which we face the visitor face to face, we have a second ace in hand in this context: the opportunity for active dialogue. 15 It is also not necessarily a given that this dialogue will develop. Guidance still often means that the visitor is given as much information as possible in a relatively short period of time. The visitor serves v. a. as a recipient who has signaled readiness to receive by participating in the tour. What he / she does with the new information is up to him / her alone. This model of thinking may apply to technical excursions. But if we transfer it too uncritically to people in the leisure sector, we run the risk, especially in nature conservation, of no longer reaching all those who only go into nature for their pleasure and not to be scientifically informed or even instructed. Such people, however, also have an influence on our natural balance and must be won over to the idea of ​​preserving our natural heritage. It must be our job to open up the way for them in particular. Fields of interpretation 1. Extent and delimitation of spaces (topographical dimension) 2. Properties and forces of water (hydrographic dimension) 3. Nature of the subsoil (geomorphological dimension) 4. Life forms and their diversity (biological dimension) 5. Locations, adaptations and interactions ( ecological dimension) 6. Human uses and burdens (anthropogenic dimension) 7. Rhythms and temporal developments (chronological dimension) 8. Light and dark, warmth and cold, wind (climatic dimension) Characterization of all fields by aspects of natural beauty (aesthetic dimension ) according to JANSSEN (1990) and TROMMER (1991) 14 complete citations see literature list course manual 15 see course manual text 14 17

18 Interpretation means building bridges between the visitors and the phenomena. In order to be able to translate nature for the visitors, we don't just have to speak the language of the phenomena. We also have to be familiar with the language of the visitors. This affects the course of the interpretation. We are already aware of the messages of the phenomena in advance. The language of the visitors can often only be fathomed in the course of the interpretation. What will the sight of our birch trigger in our visitors? What are the connections? Do you associate the tree with a great holiday experience or with the post-war period, when birch trees were a basis of their diet for some people? Do you enjoy the light foliage, or do you dread the flight of seeds that dirties your car year after year? Finding out what the visitors associate with our phenomenon means that we can build on their experiences, perceive disruptions at an early stage and thus better position our messages. To do this, we first have to obtain information from the visitors. In addition to the informal conversation, open questions are an important opportunity to learn something about knowledge, values ​​and attitudes. Bring visitors into active contact with the phenomenon. A closed question only has one correct answer, which we as interpreters already know. We ask the question to get exactly that answer. For example: what is the name of this tree? It's a birch. Open questions, on the other hand, generally allow several answers. They open up the intensive encounter with the phenomenon and thus prepare the basis for our messages. Working with open questions also means being open to the fact that our interpretation can take a different course than we assumed in our planning. We differentiate between three types of open questions: Focus questions Process questions Opinion questions The focus questions, which bring visitors into contact with the phenomenon through different senses, are of the greatest importance. In addition to the more intensive examination of the phenomenon by the visitors, open questions familiarize us with the perspectives of our visitors and allow us to use certain stepping stones to give them targeted access to our messages. Questions in the interpretation Focus questions bring visitors and phenomena in contact How does the wood feel behind the bark? Process questions stimulate assumptions about developments What changes here when the tree dies? Opinion questions ask for personal opinions. Should people intervene at this point? 18th

19 Good stepping stones are, for example, examples, comparisons, metaphors, quotes, experience reports, references to time and place, stepping stones must fit. A quotation only has a positive effect if the visitors can identify in some way or other with the personality that is being quoted. If you reject this personality, then you will probably not take a positive view of what this personality once said. If we don't know anything about our visitors, we cannot place our stepping stones in a targeted manner. And vice versa: If the visitors feel that our interpretation is also about them, then they are much more open to us and our concerns. The involvement of the visitors often takes place in three steps: after a challenge (provoke), the relation of what is said to their living environment is made clear to the visitors (relate) and finally a surprising insight is revealed (reveal). However, interpretation does not only take place in conversation. It is known that people are more likely to internalize content the more actively they have developed this content. In addition to linguistic options, there are three different levels at which we can actively involve our visitors. We are at the first stage of active involvement when we demonstrate something and ask the visitors for help (could you please hold this branch?). On the second stage, the visitors receive assignments (e.g. perception assignments), which the group evaluates together. (Step closer. How does the underside of this sheet feel?) These assignments involve the concrete natural space and as many senses as possible. In doing so, engagement becomes more attractive for visitors through: the challenge of finding something the prospect of being able to reveal something the opportunity to help others the completion of something incomplete. On the third level of active involvement, the visitors finally relate the impulses of the interpretation and their own experiences with the phenomena (select the objects to which you have a particularly close relationship). It becomes clear that our mission here is no longer just giving a lecture. As moderators we design with un Provoke Relate - Reveal Challenge your visitors! Establish relationships with them! Then reveal your secret! according to VEVERKA (1994) 19

This interpretation creates the framework that encourages our visitors to actively participate. This can be shown very well with the personal methods.Basically, the phenomenon, the visitor and the interpreter in the interpretation process are always arranged in such a way that the interpretation triangle remains in the area. The interpreter must not obstruct the viewer's view of the phenomenon. In the reflection phase, however, we have at least seven other options to form our group. And each of these formations entails a different kind of involvement. 1. Didactic formation The interpreter faces the visitor frontally: the classic form 2. Tutorial formation The interpreter supports the group's work on a topic. 3. Individual task formation The interpreter offers tasks that individual visitors work on. 4. Small group formation as above - but several visitors work out the solution together. 5. Conference formation The visitors collect their impressions, the interpreter remains in the background. 6. Meeting formation The interpreter takes on an active role as moderator in the group process. 7. Socratic formation Leading through questions; the more demanding form of the doctrinal discussion. The formation changes should result from the process as fluently as possible. They can often be elegantly initiated taking into account the spatial conditions; depending on where we stand, where the group comes to a standstill, or where we draw the attention of our visitors. Particularly popular aids for this are markings or frames (such as ribbons or flags, binoculars, magnifying glasses, eyepieces, picture frames, bright cloths as documents, ...). 16 formations should only be arranged in exceptional cases (e.g. let's form a circle!). It is not about leading the visitors on the lead tape. Formation change 16 see course manual text 17 20

21 In its interpretation, planning also means initiating open learning situations. In the group concept of Topic-Centered Interaction (TCI) there is the postulate: Disturbances have priority (COHN / TERFURTH, 1993) 17. Being able to understand unforeseen incidents as an opportunity for particularly intensive learning experiences is an important prerequisite for a good interpretation. The interpreter With the question of what significance we ourselves have for the process of interpretation, we have come to the last corner of our interpretation triangle. Our third ace is we ourselves - as interpreters and representatives of our institution. 18 There are also stepping stones between us and the visitors: humorous demeanor openness intelligibility eye contact similar interests similar perceptions common experiences good body language is part of it. And these stepping stones also come into play primarily in personal interpretation. Things that visitors keep for us, things that we distribute to visitors or collect from them, things that connect us to visitors (such as strings) all of these can be bridges to overcome distance. We can practice dealing with language, formations, stepping stones and aids in an interpretation training. What is decisive for the process, however, is whether we are authentic in what we do from the visitor's point of view. That is why interpretation encourages us to put suitable hobbyhorses at the service of the cause. Humor and self-confidence are important qualities for interpreters. However, your own enthusiasm for all three cornerstones of the interpretation triangle is the real key to success. The poet NOVALIS is quoted here, who makes wanting to immerse himself in the natural phenomenon, the wish to devote oneself to one's cause with devotion and faith, to be the linchpin of the job description of his denouncer. It is clear that a person who wants to let his own enthusiasm spill over to others is not interchangeable. People inspire people. And if we were to strive to convey information only objectively, we would be giving this ace out of hand. Good interpretation is entertaining. is significant for visitors. - She speaks personally. - It involves visitors. is clearly structured. is based on guiding principles. according to HAM (1992) 17 complete citation see literature list of course handbook 18 see course handbook text 15 21

22 At this point, at the latest, it becomes clear that new media play a rather subordinate role in the interpretation of nature and culture. Visitor information systems cannot replace the original encounter with the phenomenon, and computer programs will never achieve the quality of a personal dialogue with the visitor, because this quality is on a completely different level. The ability to collect and update information centrally and forward it to many screens is an indisputable advantage of the new media. The internet also makes research easier for interpreters. With the appropriate equipment, print media can be developed, provided with current photos, layout and printed within a few hours, without having to go the time-consuming route via photo laboratories, typesetting or printing shops. It remains an illusion, however, that interactive computer programs even come close to what constitutes interpersonal communication. On the way there, not only the material, but also the work-related effort soon outweighs the benefits. In this context, it is interesting to read what FREEMAN TILDEN said in the 1950s on the subject of gadgetry (technical gadgets) (cf. TILDEN, 1957). 19 From the point of view of interpretation, nothing is gained and some is lost when workplaces that were once shaped by human exchange become computer workstations, and when the direct encounter of the visitors with the phenomenon is replaced by computer animation. The main idea If the nature and culture interpretation is not about the amount of information, it is about selecting certain information in a targeted manner and presenting it as impressively as possible. The interpretation of nature and culture always serves to promote our natural and cultural heritage. For this we now have the fourth ace in hand - beyond the three corner points of the interpretation triangle: the central idea. Only a powerful guiding principle makes the phenomenon an object of interpretation. But what are the characteristics of a guiding principle? The main idea is something like the magic formula of interpretation. It not only sets the goal, it is also our personal guiding star - and a kind of belief. How do we find our guiding principle? As we have already pointed out, every phenomenon sends out a multitude of messages. Some of these messages seem banal at first; but others obviously get under the skin. They contain explosives, irritate or arouse curiosity. Such messages can be further developed into central ideas. 19 complete citation see bibliography course manual 22

23 Basic course in the interpretation of nature and culture An example: As a table mountain, the Lilienstein is the landmark of the Saxon Switzerland National Park. When we designed its plateau as a space for interpretation, we compiled around 20 messages, six of which are listed here: a) There are usable areas in the valley, I have heather vegetation. b) I am a piece of nature in a cultural landscape. c) Wind and weather are working on my flanks. d) I offer a view over Saxon Switzerland. e) I am stagnant sedimentary rock. f) The Elbe, which flows around me to the south, once flowed on my north side. With these six messages in mind, we have formulated our main guiding principle: The Lilienstein is an island. This main guiding principle gives the aforementioned messages z. T. a new meaning. As a result, we reformulated three of them as subordinate central ideas that work towards the main theme. Example for a): We are surrounded by typical island vegetation. This central idea, which is explained using the example of a representative phenomenon, is supported by two to three technical statements from ecology. The aim is for the visitor to understand the statements himself / herself. Messages that have not been used in the reduction of the main guiding principle are consistently put into the archive. Guiding ideas are like lighthouses that we can steer towards in the course of an interpretation. The way to get there is in principle open, and a drift only means that we have to correct the course and approach our lighthouse from a different direction. We can create a mind map for every interpretation (cf. BUZAN, 1993) 20 and we will find that the picture of our interpretation becomes clearer for us, the more concise our central ideas are. Forms of interpretation We differentiated the personal interpretation, which the interpreter personally guides, from the medial interpretation, in which representative aids (boards, action elements) are set up in the area. Personal and media interpretations each have three forms that build on one another. The table on the following page shows which forms these are and what characterizes them. While the short interpretation and the interpretation element relate to only one phenomenon and only one central idea, the interpretation path and the interpretation path follow a thematic line that contains several 20 complete quotations see the literature list of the course manual 23