Which environmental factors influence HRM
Human Resources Management (HRM)
Human Resources Management (HRM) defines the well-known Gabler Lexicon Personal as a "modern term for the totality of all tasks in the company, which are based on the generic terms:
- Personnel management and support
- Personnel administration
- Personnel development
Respectively." (see Büdenbender / Strutz 1996, 178).
Accordingly, human resource management is an “internal company service to manage human resources in such a way that the company's purpose is achieved.
The German terms are not used uniformly. The terms “Human Resources”, “Human Resources” or “Personnel Management” are also used to denote the entire area of responsibility.
HRM has a strategic and an operational focus. In this regard, the main tasks arise:
- Strategic partner of management
- Management of transformations and change
- Employee support
- Administrative expert
The "classics" of the conception of HRM, to which reference is still made today, both come from the USA in the early 1980s. TheMichigan Approach and the Harvard Approach.
The Michigan Approach:
Developed in the early 1980s by a research group led by Tichy at the University of Michigan, the following areas serve as core pillars:
- Strategic personnel selection (strategy-based planning of personnel requirements and strategy-based control of personnel movements)
- Strategic performance appraisal (orientation of the appraisal criteria on strategic priorities)
- Strategic incentives (motivation and reward of employees for achieving and realizing long-term strategic goals)
- Strategic personnel development (conception of future-oriented training and further education programs and strategy-oriented career planning)
The Michigan concept has a narrow subject area: it focuses on the promotion of human resources and the internal consistency of personnel policy measures of the so-called "human resource cycle" (consisting of personnel recruitment, remuneration, personnel development, personnel appraisal) as well as coordination between companies - and personnel strategy. The power of the approach lies in its contribution to the interrelation of corporate strategy, structure and HRM. HRM strategies are derived here from corporate strategies; HRM is used to implement corporate strategies.
The Harvard approach:
In contrast to the Michigan approach, the Harvard approach is primarily concerned with theStrategy implementation and theGeneral management perspectiveand determines the following subdivision of the HRM:
- Employee participation (participation philosophy)
- Human resources movements (recruitment, deployment, dismissal)
- Reward system (incentive, remuneration and participation systems)
- Work organization (work structuring)
The Harvard concept focuses on the diverse (corporate) environmental factors that influence HRM. It aims at an integrated overall concept: the integration and harmonization of four central sub-functions in personnel management (the "HR movement" through the company, the incentive / reward system, work organization, participation) as well as their coordination with the corporate strategy and with external influencing factors . This integration perspective is the innovative achievement of the approach. The employees are considered to be essential participants.
The main tasks and areas of work of HRM
Human Resources Management
Involvement of employees and managers in the company's tasks. Leadership and motivation, management tools, salary structure, incentive systems.
Determination and planning of future personnel requirements.
Personnel development includes all measures to maintain and improve the qualifications of employees. This includes education, training, retraining, training, supervision and coaching. Personnel development promotes professional competence, social competence, leadership competence, key qualifications.
Internal company communication and knowledge management as well as external communication to service providers such as personnel consultants, employment agencies, recruiters, temporary employment agencies, universities, schools, chambers of trade and associations.
Cooperation with the works council
Human resource management
Administrative and comprehensive informational tasks in human resources.
Recruitment or personnel marketing
Recruitment is often referred to as personnel marketing.
Internal recruitment that is linked to internal procurement channels, e.g. B. in-house job posting, personnel development, promotion, transfer and overtime.
External recruitment that relates to external procurement channels, e. B. HR consultants, employment agencies, recruiters, advertisements, job exchanges, recruiting fairs and global and active sourcing.
Human resource control,Personnel controlling
Personnel management control includes the monitoring and controlling of what is happening in human resources, e.g. lowering personnel costs, fluctuation, absenteeism, increasing work productivity and work performance.
Personnel support is the comprehensive service function of the human resources department with all facilities, measures and services that are assigned to the staff in addition to the agreed remuneration.
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