Great love is an unstoppable indestructible energy

Consecrated life
To the lay faithful


1. Caritas in veritate - the love in truth, which Jesus Christ testified with his earthly life and especially with his death and resurrection, is the main drive for the real development of every person and of all humanity. Love - "caritas«- is an extraordinary force that urges people to act courageously and generously in the field of justice and peace. It is a power that has its origin in God, who is eternal love and absolute truth. Everyone finds happiness in consenting to the plan that God has for him in order to realize it perfectly: in fact, in this plan he finds his truth, and by consenting to this truth he becomes free (cf. Joh 8, 32). Defending the truth, bringing it up with humility and conviction, and bearing witness to it in life are therefore demanding and irreplaceable forms of love. Because this "rejoices in the truth" (1 Cor 13, 6). All people feel the inner impulse to truly love: love and truth never completely depart from them, for they are the calling that God has placed in the heart and mind of every person. Jesus Christ cleanses and frees the search for love and truth from our human misery and fully reveals to us the initiative of love and the plan of a true life that God has prepared for us. The Love in truth becomes the face of Christ; and in Christ it becomes a call for us to love our fellow men in the truth of his plan. He himself is the truth (cf. Joh 14, 6).

2. Love is the main avenue of the Church's social doctrine. Every responsibility and obligation described by this doctrine arises from love, which, according to Jesus, is the summary of the whole law (cf. Mt 22, 36-40). It gives a true meaning to the personal relationship with God and with one's neighbor; it is the principle not only of micro-relationships - in friendship, family and small groups - but also of macro-relationships - in social, economic and political contexts. For the Church - from the Gospel point of view - love is everything, because, as Saint John teaches us (cf. Joh 4, 8.16) and I recalled in my first encyclical: "God is love" (Deuscaritas est): Everything emerges from the love of God, through it everything takes shape and everything strives towards it. Love is the greatest gift that God has given man, it is his promise and our hope.

I know about the distortions and the emptying of meaning to which love has been and is exposed, with the corresponding danger that it will be misunderstood, excluded from ethical life and in any case prevented from coming into its own. In the social, legal, cultural, political and economic area, i.e. in the contexts that are most susceptible to this danger, love is easily declared to be irrelevant for the interpretation and orientation of moral responsibility. It is therefore necessary to express love and truth not only in the direction indicated by St. Paulveritas in caritate« (Eph 4, 15) to connect with each other, but also in the opposite and complementary of »caritas in veritate«. Truth must be sought, found and expressed in the "economy" of love, but love in turn must be understood, confirmed and practiced in the light of truth. In this way we will not only render a service to love enlightened by the truth, but we will also help to ensure that the truth is credible by making its authenticity and persuasiveness clear in concrete social life. This is of no small importance today in a social and cultural environment that relativizes the truth and is often indifferent and hostile towards it.

3. Because of this close connection with the truth, love can be recognized as an authentic expression of being human and as an element of fundamental importance in human relationships, including in the public sphere. Only in truth does love shine and can be lived credibly. Truth is a light that gives meaning and value to love. It is the light of reason as well as faith through which the understanding arrives at the natural and supernatural truth of love: it grasps its meaning as devotion, acceptance and communion. Without truth, love slips into sentimentality. It becomes an empty case that you can fill as you like. That is the fatal danger to love in a culture without truth. She falls victim to the random feelings and opinions of individuals, a word that is misused and distorted until it finally means the opposite. Truth frees love from the constrictions of an emotionalization that robs it of rational and social content, and of a fideism that robs it of its human and universal breadth. In truth, love reflects the personal and at the same time public dimension of faith in the biblical God, who at the same time »Agape"and "Logos«Is: Caritas and truth, love and word.

4. Since love is full of truth, it can be grasped by people in its wealth of values, accepted with approval and conveyed. Because the truth is "Lógos", the "Diá-logos" creates and thus brings about exchange and community. By pulling people out of subjective opinions and feelings, truth gives them the opportunity to overcome cultural and historical determinations and to encounter one another in the judgment of the value and essence of things. Truth opens people's minds and unites their intelligence in Logos of love: this is the message and the Christian testimony of love. If we live love in truth in the current social and cultural environment, in which the tendency to relativize the truth is widespread, we come to the insight that the acceptance of the values ​​of Christianity is not only a useful but indispensable element for building a good society and real holistic human development. A Christianity of love without truth can easily be mistaken for a store of good feelings useful for social coexistence, but irrelevant. In this way there would no longer be any real place for God in the world. Without the truth, love is relegated to a limited and private area of ​​relationships. It is excluded from the planning and the processes for building a human development of comprehensive scope - in the dialogue between knowledge and practice.

5.Caritas is love received and given. She is "grace" (cháris). Its source is the original love of the Father for the Son in the Holy Spirit. It is love that flows down to us from the Son. It is creative love from which we have our being; it is redemptive love through which we are born again. It is love revealed and realized by Christ (cf. Joh 13, 1), "poured out into our hearts by the Holy Spirit" (Rom 5, 5). As recipients of God's love, people are called upon to be carriers of charity and called to become instruments of grace themselves in order to spread the love of God and to weave networks of charity.

The social teaching of the Church deals with this dynamic of love received and given. she is »caritas in veritate in re sociali«: Proclaiming the truth of Christ's love in society. This teaching is the service of love, but in truth. Truth is the guardian and expression of the liberating power of love in the ever new vicissitudes of history. It is at the same time the truth of faith and reason, in the distinction as well as in the interaction of the two areas of knowledge. This truth is necessary for development, social prosperity and an adequate solution to the severe socio-economic problems that plague humanity. And it is even more necessary that this truth be loved and witnessed. Without truth, without trust and love for what is true, there is no conscience and no social responsibility: social action becomes a game of private interests and logics of power, with corrosive consequences for society, all the more so in a society on the way to globalization and in difficult situations like the present.

6. »Caritas in veritate«Is the principle around which the social doctrine of the Church revolves, a principle which takes an effective form as a measure of orientation for moral action. I would like to mention two of them in particular, which are particularly necessary when working for the development in a society on the way to globalization: justice and the common good.

First of all, justice. Ubi societas, ibi ius: Every society develops its own legal system. The Love goes beyond justice, because to love is to give, to give to the other what is "mine"; but it is never without the justice that moves me to give the other what “his” is, what is due to him because of his being and his work. I cannot “give” what is mine to the other without first having given him what he is rightfully entitled to. Those who treat others with charity are above all just to them. Justice is not only in no way foreign to love, it is not only not an alternative or parallel path to it: justice is inseparably connected with love, [1] it is an inherent element. Justice is the first way of love or - like Paul VI. said - their "minimum", [2] an essential part of that love "in deed and truth" (1 Joh 3:18) to which the apostle John calls. On the one hand, love requires justice: recognition and respect for the legitimate rights of individuals and peoples. She is committed to building the “city of man” according to law and justice. On the other hand, love goes beyond justice and completes it in the logic of giving and forgiving. [3] The “city of man” is not only promoted by relationships based on rights and duties, but more and more, first and foremost, by relationships characterized by gratitude, mercy and togetherness. Charity always reveals the love of God in human relationships too; this gives every commitment to justice in the world a theological and salvific value.

7. Furthermore, special emphasis must be placed on the common good. To love someone means to have an eye on their well-being and to work effectively for it. In addition to the individual good, there is one thing that is tied to the life of people in society: the common good. It is the good of that "we all", which is formed from individuals, families and smaller groups that come together to form a social community. [4] It is not a well-being sought for oneself, but for the people who belong to the social community and can only really and effectively achieve their well-being in it. The Common good wish and use yourself for it is a requirement of justice and love. To work for the common good means on the one hand to protect the entirety of the institutions that structure social life legally, civilly, politically and culturally, and on the other hand to make use of them, so that in this way the Polis, the city is taking shape. You love your neighbor the more effectively, the more you work for a common good that also corresponds to your real needs. Every Christian is called to this charity in the manner of his calling and in accordance with his possibilities of influencing it Polis. That is the institutional - we can also say political - way of charity, which is no less suitable and effective than the love that is given to the neighbor directly, outside the institutional mediations of the Polis comes towards you. If the commitment to the common good is inspired by love, it has a higher value than the merely secular, political. Like any commitment to justice, it is part of that testimony of divine love which, while it is at work in time, prepares eternity. If the actions of man on earth are inspired and supported by love, it contributes to the building of those universal City of God towards which human family history is moving. In a society on the way to globalization, the common good and the commitment to it must inevitably take on the dimensions of the entire human family, that is, of the community of peoples and nations, [5] so that they become the City of man to give the shape of unity and peace and, in a sense, to make it a foretelling anticipation of the boundless city of God.

8. By publishing the encyclical Populorum progressio in 1967 my esteemed predecessor Paul VI. illuminates the great theme of the development of peoples under the splendor of truth and the light of Christ's love. He affirmed that the proclamation of Christ is the first and main factor of development, [6] and he has given us the task of moving forward on the path of development with our hearts and all our intelligence, [7] that is, with the fire of love and of Wisdom of truth. It is the original truth of God's love, a grace given to us, which opens our lives to the gift and makes it possible for a development "of all man and of all mankind," [8] a transition "from less human to more human conditions «[9] to hope for, which will be achieved by overcoming the difficulties that will inevitably be encountered along the way.

Over forty years after the publication of the encyclical, I would like to commemorate the great Pope Paul VI. Give recognition and honor by sharing his teachings on the holistic human development take up and embark on the path they have mapped out in order to update them in the present time. This updating process began with the encyclical Sollecitudo rei socialis, with which the Servant of God Pope John Paul II the publication of Populorum progressio wanted to commemorate her twentieth anniversary. Until then, only the encyclical was such a souvenir Rerum novarum have been granted. Now that twenty years have passed, I express my belief that the encyclical Populorum progressio deserves as »the Rerum novarum of our time ”, which illuminates the steps of humanity on the way to unity.

9. Love in truth - caritas in veritate - is a great challenge for the church in a world of advancing and spreading globalization. The danger of our time is that the actual interdependence of people and peoples does not correspond to an ethical interrelation of conscience and understanding of those involved, from which a real human development could emerge as a result. Only with that love enlightened by the light of reason and faith it is possible to achieve development goals that have a more humane and humane value. The sharing of goods and resources, from which real development emerges, is guaranteed not only through technical progress and through relationships determined solely by calculation, but through the potential of love, which conquers evil with good (cf. Rom 12, 21) and opens people to interact with one another in their conscience and freedom.

The church has no technical solutions to offer [10] and in no way claims to "interfere in state affairs". [11] But it has to fulfill a mission of truth at all times and under all circumstances for a society that does justice to human beings and their dignity and vocation. Without truth, one falls into an empirical and skeptical view of life that is unable to rise above practice because it is not interested in grasping the values ​​- and sometimes even the meanings - by which they are to be judged and by which they are is to be aligned. Loyalty to people requires that Faithful to the Truthwho alone Guarantee of freedom (see. Joh 8, 32) and the possibility of holistic human development is. That is why the Church seeks the truth, proclaims it tirelessly and recognizes it wherever it is revealed. This sending of truth is indispensable for the Church. Your social teaching is a special aspect of this proclamation: it is service to the truth that liberates. Open to the truth, regardless of the direction of knowledge it comes from, the social doctrine of the Church takes it up, puts the fragments in which it often finds it together into a unity and transmits it to the ever-new way of life of the society of people and peoples into it. [12]




10. Rereading Populorum progressio Over forty years after its publication, it encourages us to remain faithful to its message of love and truth and to use it in the context of the specific teaching of Pope Paul VI. and to be viewed more generally within the tradition of the Church's social doctrine. Then we have to consider the other conditions under which the problem of development presents itself today in contrast to then. The correct point of view, then, is that of the tradition of the apostolic faith, [13] the legacy old and new, outside of it Populorum progressio would be a document without roots and the development issues would be reduced to sociological data only.

11. The publication of Populorum progressio happened immediately after the conclusion of the Second Vatican Council. The first paragraphs of the encyclical itself indicate its close relationship with the Council. [14] Pope John Paul II underlined twenty years later in Sollicitudo rei socialis on the other hand, the fruitful connection of that encyclical to the council, especially to the pastoral constitution Gaudium et spes. [15] I too would like to refer to the importance of the Second Vatican Council for the encyclical of Pope Paul VI. and remember for the entire subsequent Magisterium of the Popes on social issues. The council deepened what has always been part of the truth of faith, namely that the Church, being in the service of God, is in the service of the world in relation to love and truth. It was precisely from this point of view that Pope Paul VI went. to tell us two great truths. The first is that The whole Church, when she proclaims, celebrates the Eucharist and works in love, is oriented in all its being and action to promote the holistic development of man. It has a public role that is not limited to its commitment to care or education, but rather reveals all its special powers in the service of the advancement of people and worldwide fraternity when it can avail itself of a liberal regime. In not a few cases this freedom is hindered by prohibitions and persecution or also restricted if the public presence of the church is limited solely to its charitable activities. The second truth is that the real development of man uniformly affects the totality of the person in all its dimensions. [16] Without the prospect of eternal life, human progress in this world lacks breath. If he remains locked in history, he is in danger of being limited to a mere increase in property; thus humanity loses the courage to be receptive to the higher goods, to the great and selfless initiatives to which universal charity urges. Man does not just develop with his own strength, nor can the development simply be given to him from outside. In the course of history it has often been thought that the creation of institutions is sufficient to guarantee humanity the fulfillment of its right to development. Unfortunately, there has been excessive confidence in such institutions, as if they could automatically achieve the desired goal. In reality, the institutions alone are not enough, because the holistic development of the human being is above all a vocation and consequently requires everyone to assume responsibility freely and in solidarity. Such a development also requires a transcendent view of the person, it needs God: Without him development is either denied or only entrusted to the hand of man, who falls into the presumption of self-redemption and ultimately promotes dehumanized development. Incidentally, only the encounter with God allows not "always to see the other in the other", [17] but to recognize the divine image in him and thus to come to really discover the other and to let a love mature, the "concern for the other and for the other" [18] becomes.

12. The connection between Populorum progressio and the Second Vatican Council does not represent a break between the teaching office of Pope Paul VI. in social questions and that of his predecessors in the chair of Peter, for the Council is a deepening of this teaching in the continuity of the life of the Church. [19] In this sense, certain abstract subdivisions of the modern social doctrine of the Church, which apply categories alien to her to the social statements of the Popes, do not help to clarify. There are not two typologies of social teaching, a pre-conciliar and a post-conciliar, which differ from one another, but one only coherent and at the same time always new teaching. [20] It is right to emphasize the peculiarities of one or the other encyclical, of the teaching of one or the other Pope, but one must never emphasize the coherence of the whole Corpus lose sight of teaching. [21] Coherence does not mean being included in a system, but rather dynamic fidelity to a received light. The Church's social teaching illuminates the ever new problems that arise with a light that does not change. [22] This ensures that this doctrinal "heritage" is both permanently current and historical, [23] which, with its specific characteristics, is part of the Church's ever-living tradition. [24] The social doctrine of the church is built on the foundation that the apostles imparted to the church fathers and that was then taken up and deepened by the great Christian teachers. This doctrine ultimately falls back on the New Man, on the "Last Adam" who became the "quickening spirit" (Gen. Cor 15, 45) and is the origin of that love that "never ceases" (1 Cor 13, 8). It is testified by the saints and by all who gave their lives for Christ the Redeemer in the field of righteousness and peace. It expresses the prophetic task of the Popes to lead the Church of Christ apostolically and to recognize the new needs of evangelization. It is for these reasons that the encyclical is embedded in the great stream of tradition Populorum progressio able to tell us something else today.

13. Besides its important connection with the whole social doctrine of the Church is this encyclical Populorum progressio with the entire teaching post of Pope Paul VI. and especially with his teaching post in social issues connected. His teachings on this topic were of great importance: he emphasized the indispensable role of the Gospel in building society in the sense of freedom and justice, in the spiritual and historical perspective of a civilization guided by love. Pope Paul VI realized clearly that the social question had become worldwide, [25] and saw the inner correspondence between the urge for a unification of humanity and the Christian ideal of a single family of peoples, solidarized in general brotherhood. Hereferred to the human and Christian understanding of development as the heart of Christian social teaching and presented Christian love as the main force in the service of development. Moved by the desire to make the love of Christ fully visible to man today, Pope Paul VI. resolutely tackled important ethical questions without giving in to the weaknesses of the culture of his time.

14. With the Apostolic Letter Octogesima adveniens from 1971 Pope Paul VI. then the sense of politics and the Danger from utopian and ideological visionsthat compromised their ethical and human quality. These are arguments that are closely related to development. Unfortunately, the negative ideologies continue to bloom. Before the technocratic ideology that is particularly prevalent today, Pope Paul VI. Already warned, [26] knowing that it is very dangerous to leave the entire development process to technology alone, because in this way he would lack orientation. Technology, by itself, is ambivalent. If today, on the one hand, there is a tendency to entrust the development process in question to it completely, on the other hand, the emergence of ideologies can be observed which deny the usefulness of development at all because they consider it to be fundamentally anti-human and believe that it will lead to general decline. Ultimately, one condemns not only the distorted and unjust ways in which people sometimes guide progress, but the scientific discoveries themselves, which, on the other hand, if used right, represent an opportunity for growth for all. The idea of ​​a world without development expresses distrust of man and of God. It is therefore a grave mistake to underestimate the human ability to control excesses in development, or even to ignore the fact that man is constitutively striving towards "being more". To ideologically absolutize technological progress or to dream the utopia of a human race that has returned to its original state of nature are two opposing ways of separating progress from moral evaluation and thus from our responsibility.

15. Two other documents of Pope Paul VI that are not directly related to social doctrine - the encyclical Humanae vitae of July 25, 1968 and the Apostolic Letter Evangelii nuntiandi dated Dec. 8, 1975 - are very important to the wholly human content of the development proposed by the Church to describe. So it is appropriate to also use these two texts in conjunction Populorum progressio to read.

The encyclical Humanae vitae Underlines the twofold importance of sexuality as union and as procreation and thus founds society on the foundation of the married couple, a man and a woman who accept each other in their difference and complementarity; a couple who are open to life. [27] It is not just an individual morality: Humanae vitae show the strong connections on the between the ethics of life and social ethics exist, and has thus opened a magisterial theme that has gradually taken shape in various documents, most recently in the encyclical Gospel vitae Pope John Paul II [28] The Church emphasizes this connection between the ethics of life and social ethics, because she knows: Impossible »a society can have secure foundations which - while asserting values ​​such as dignity of the person, justice and peace - are fundamentally contradicting itself when it accepts or tolerates the most varied forms of disregard and harm to human life, especially when it is a question of weak or marginalized life ". [29]

The Apostolic Letter Evangelii nuntiandi has, for its part, a very close relationship with development, for "evangelization would not be perfect", wrote Pope Paul VI of people mutually demand ". [30] "There are indeed close links between evangelization and human advancement - development and liberation": [31] On the basis of this knowledge, Pope Paul VI stated. clearly shows the relationship between the preaching of Christ and the advancement of man in society. The testimony of the love of Christ through works of justice, peace and development is part of evangelization, because Jesus Christ, who turns to us in love, cares about the whole person. The missionary aspect [32] of the social doctrine of the Church as an essential element of evangelization is based on these important doctrines. [33] The social doctrine of the church is the proclamation of faith and a witness of faith. It is an instrument and an indispensable place for education in the faith.

16. In the encyclical Populorum progressio wanted Pope Paul VI. Above all, tell us that progress in its origin and essence is one vocation is: »According to God's plan, every person is called to develop; for all of life is a calling «. [34] It is precisely this fact that justifies the Church's intervention in the complex of problems of development. If it were only about technical aspects of human life, and if man were not aware of the meaning of his progress in history together with his fellow human beings, nor the determination of the goal of this path, then the church would have no right to speak about these things. Pope Paul VI was - like his predecessor Pope Leo XIII. in the encyclical Rerum novarum[35] - conscious of fulfilling a duty peculiar to his office by throwing the light of the Gospel on the social questions of his time. [36]

When you say that the Develop a calling is, it means to acknowledge that, on the one hand, it arises from a transcendent call and, on the other hand, it is incapable of giving itself its ultimate meaning. It is not without reason that the word “vocation” appears in another passage in the encyclical, where it says: “Only that humanism, then, is the true one that opens up to the absolute, in gratitude for a vocation that gives the correct understanding of the human Gives life «. [37] This view of development is at the heart of Populorum progressio and motivates all reflections of Pope Paul VI. about freedom, truth and love in development. It is also the main reason why this encyclical is still relevant in our day.

17. The vocation is an appeal that demands a free and responsible response. The holistic human development implies the responsible freedom of the person and the peoples ahead: no structure can guarantee this development if it leaves aside human responsibility or places itself above it. The "messianisms", rich in "promises that are only jugglers of a dream world," [38] always base their own proposals on the denial of the transcendent dimension of development, in the certainty that it is entirely at their disposal. This false security turns into weakness because it entails the subjugation of the person who is degraded to a means of development, while the humility of the one who accepts a calling turns into true autonomy because it makes man free . Pope Paul VI does not doubt that obstacles and conditions hinder development, but he is also certain that "everyone is the creator of his happiness, his failure is the cause, whatever the influences that act on him." [39] This freedom concerns the development we have before us, but it also concerns situations of underdevelopment, which are not the result of chance or historical necessity, but depend on human responsibility. For this reason, "the hungry peoples ... the prosperous peoples urgently seek help". [40] That too is a vocation, an appeal directed by free people to free people for a shared assumption of responsibility. Pope Paul VI had a living sense of the importance of economic structures and institutions, but just as clear was his sense of their very nature as tools of human freedom. Only when it is free can development be entirely human; only in conditions of responsible freedom can it grow appropriately.

18. In addition to the demand for freedom Holistic human development as a vocation also requires that its truth be respected. The call to progress urges people "to act more, to know more, to possess more in order to be more". [41] But then the problem arises: What does "being more" mean? Pope Paul VI answers this question by referring to the essential characteristic of "true development": it must "be comprehensive, it must focus on the whole human being and all of humanity". [42] In the competition between different perceptions of man, of which there are even more in today's society than in the time of Pope Paul VI, the Christian perspective has the peculiarity of affirming and justifying the inalienable value of man and the meaning of his growth. The Christian vocation to development helps to pursue the advancement of all people and the whole person. Pope Paul VIwrote: "What counts for us is the person, the individual, the group of people up to the whole of humanity". [43] The Christian faith takes care of development without relying on privileges or positions of power and not even on the merits of Christians, even if they existed and are today apart from natural limits. [44] Rather, faith relies solely on Christ, to whom every genuine call to holistic human development can be traced back. The gospel is a fundamental element of developmentfor in it Christ "in the revelation of the mystery of the Father and of his love fully reveals man himself to man". [45] Taught by her Lord, the Church explores the signs of the times, interprets them and offers the world "what is most essential: a comprehensive view of man and humanity". [46] Precisely because God says the greatest "yes" to man, [47] man cannot do without opening himself up to the divine calling in order to realize his own development. The truth of development consists in its totality: if development does not affect the whole person and every person, it is not true development. That is the central message of Populorum progressiothat applies today and always. The holistic development of man on the natural level in response to a calling by God the Creator [48] requires its realization in a »humanism of the otherworldly… kind, which gives [man] an all-encompassing perfection: that is the goal and the ultimate sense of human Development «. [49] The Christian vocation to this development concerns both the natural and the supernatural plane; for this reason: "When God is overshadowed, our ability to recognize the natural order, its goal and the 'good' gradually dwindles". [50]

19. Finally, the conception of development as a vocation requires that in it love in the center stands. Pope Paul VI noted in the encyclical Populorum progressio states that the causes of underdevelopment are not primarily material. He asked us to look for them in other human dimensions. Especially in the will, which often disregards the duties of solidarity. Second in thinking, which does not always know how to orient the will in the right way. The development should therefore be accompanied by "wise people with deep thoughts who are on the lookout for a new humanism that allows people of today to find themselves". [51] But that's not all. The underdevelopment has a cause which is even more important than the inadequacy of thinking: it is the "lack of brotherly spirit among men and among peoples". [52] Can people ever achieve such brotherhood of their own accord? The increasingly globalized society makes us neighbors, but not siblings. Reason alone is able to understand equality among people and to establish civil coexistence, but it does not succeed in creating brotherhood. This has its origin in a transcendent calling by God the Father, who first loved us and teaches us through the Son what fraternal love is. In his description of the different levels of human development, Pope Paul VI, after mentioning faith, placed at the top “the unity in the love of Christ, who called everyone to participate as children in the life of the living God, the Father of all people «. [53]

20. This from Populorum progressio The perspectives opened up remain fundamental in order to give momentum and orientation to our commitment to the development of peoples. The encyclical also repeatedly emphasizes the Urgency of reform[54] and then calls on us to act courageously and without hesitation in the face of the great problems of injustice in the development of peoples. Also the Love in truth dictates this urgency. It is the love of Christ that urges us: »caritas Christi urget nos« (2 Cor 5, 14). The urgency lies not only in the circumstances, it arises not only from the fact that the events and problems are precipitous, but also from the premium offered: the realization of a genuine brotherhood. This goal is so important that it requires our open-mindedness so that we can understand it deeply and commit ourselves specifically and "from the heart" to ensuring that the current economic and social processes lead to truly human results.




21. Pope Paul VI. had a differentiated view of development. With the term »development« he wanted to indicate the goal of helping peoples to overcome hunger, misery, endemic diseases and illiteracy. From an economic point of view, this meant their active participation in the international economic process under equal conditions; from the social point of view, their development into educated societies based on solidarity; from the political point of view, the consolidation of democratic regimes capable of ensuring freedom and peace. While after many years we look with concern at the developments and at the prospects of the crises that follow one another in these times, we wonder how far the expectations of Pope Paul VI. of the development model used in the last few decades been satisfied are. We can thus see that the fears of the church regarding the abilities of the purely technically oriented person to set realistic goals and to use the available means in an appropriate manner were well founded. Profit is useful when, in its capacity as a means, it is associated with an end which gives meaning to the way it is obtained and that of its use. The exclusive focus on profit runs, if it is obtained in an improper manner and its end purpose is not the common good, the risk of destroying wealth and creating poverty. The Pope Paul VI. Desired economic development should be such that it produces real, extensible and concretely sustainable growth. It is true that development has been and continues to be a positive factor that has lifted billions of people out of misery and has recently given many countries the opportunity to become effective partners in international politics. One must admit, however, that this very economic development is due to Distortions and Dramatic Problems was and continues to be burdened, which are becoming even more prominent due to the current crisis situation. This confronts us with decisions that cannot be postponed, and that increasingly affect the determination of the human being, who by the way cannot disregard his nature. The technical forces on the plan, the global interrelationships, the harmful effects of poorly deployed and, moreover, speculative financial activity on the real economy, the stately, often only triggered and then inappropriately managed migration flows, the uncontrolled exploitation of earth's resources - all of this prompts us today to reflect on the measures necessary to solve problems compared to those of Pope Paul VI. undertaken are not only new, but also and above all have a decisive influence on the present and future well-being of mankind. The aspects of the crisis and its solutions as well as those of a future new possible development are more and more interconnected, they are mutually dependent, require new efforts to achieve an overall understanding and a new humanistic synthesis. We are rightly concerned about the complexity and gravity of the current economic crisis, but we must accept with realism, trust and hope the new responsibilities called for by the scenario of a world in need of profound cultural renewal and the rediscovery of core values ​​on which building a better future is. The crisis obliges us to re-plan our path, to give ourselves new rules and to find new forms of employment, to steer towards positive experiences and discard the negative ones. So will the crisis Reason for distinction and new planning. The difficulties of the present moment must be tackled in this more confident than resigned attitude.

22. Today the framework of development is polycentric. The actors and the causes of both underdevelopment and development are diverse; guilt and merit must be distinguished from one another. This fact ought to urge one to free oneself from the ideologies which often artificially simplify reality and lead to an objective examination of the human complexity of the problems. The line of demarcation between rich and poor countries is no longer as clear as it was at the time of the encyclical Populorum progressio; Pope John Paul II had already pointed this out. [55]In absolute terms, global wealth is increasing, but inequalities are increasing. In rich countries, new social classes are becoming impoverished and new forms of poverty are emerging. In poorer regions, some groups enjoy a kind of wasteful and consumer-oriented overdevelopment, which stands in unacceptable contrast to persistent situations of dehumanizing misery. "The scandal of blatant injustice" [56] continues. Unfortunately, there is corruption and illegality in the behavior of economic and political representatives in the old and new rich countries as well as in the poor countries themselves. Sometimes it is large transnational companies or local production groups that do not respect the human rights of workers. International aid has often been misappropriated through irresponsibility in both the donor and beneficiary chain. We can also find the same division of responsibility in the area of ​​non-material or cultural causes of development or underdevelopment. There are exaggerated forms of knowledge protection on the part of rich countries through too strict application of intellectual property rights, especially in the medical field. At the same time, in some poor countries, cultural models and social norms of behavior persist, which slow down the development process.

23. Many regions of the world have developed today, albeit in a problematic and inhomogeneous way, and have entered the circle of great powers that are destined to play important roles in the future. It must be underlined, however, that a Progress is not enough from an economic and technological point of view alone. It is necessary that the development be, above all, genuine and holistic. Stepping out of the economic deficit, a positive fact in itself, does not solve the complex problem of human support: neither for the countries directly affected by this progress, nor for those that are already economically developed, and also not for those countries that are still poor. which can suffer not only from the old forms of exploitation, but also from the negative consequences of distorted and imbalanced growth.

After the collapse of the economic and political systems of the communist countries in Eastern Europe and the end of the so-called “opposing blocs”, a comprehensive rethinking of developments would have been necessary. This was demanded by Pope John Paul II, who in 1987 identified the existence of these "blocs" as one of the main causes of underdevelopment, [57] insofar as politics withdrew funds from the economy and culture and ideology hindered freedom. In 1991, after the events of 1989, he also demanded that the end of the "blocs" must correspond to a global re-planning of development, not only in those countries but also in the West and in those parts of the world that are were in the development stage. [58] That has only happened in part, and it remains a real obligation that must be met, perhaps taking advantage of the very decisions necessary to overcome current economic problems.

24. Although in view of the already advanced process of socialization one could speak of a global social question, the world that Pope Paul VI. had in front of him, grew even less together than the present one. Economic activity and political activity largely took place in the same spatial area and could therefore rely on each other. Productive activity took place primarily within national borders, and financial investments had a rather limited circulation abroad, so that the policy of many states could still set the priorities of the economy and, with the means still available to it, regulate their progress in a certain way . Because of this, wrote Populorum progressio the "state authority" [59] has a central, if not exclusive, task.

In our time, the state is confronted with the situation of having to deal with the restrictions that the new international economic-commercial and financial context is putting in the way of its sovereignty - a context that is also reflected in the increasing mobility of finance capital and the material and immaterial means of production. This new context has changed the political power of states.

Today - also under the impression of the lesson that the current economic crisis is teaching us, in which the state violence is directly concerned with correcting errors and mismanagement - seems one new valuation of the role and the power of states more realistic; Both must be carefully reconsidered and reassessed so that the states are able again - also through new ways of exercising them - to face the challenges of today's world. With a more balanced role for state power, one can assume that those new forms of participation in national and international politics which are realized through the activities of organizations working in civil society will be strengthened. It is desirable that in this direction a deeper awareness and participation of the citizens in the Res publica grow.

25. From the social point of view, the protective and welfare institutions that were already in existence at the time of Pope Paul VI. In many countries there was an effort - and it could become even more difficult in the future - to pursue their goals of real social justice in a profoundly changed game of forces. The global market has driven the search for zones, especially in rich countries, into which production can be relocated at low prices, with the aim of lowering the prices of many goods, increasing purchasing power and thus the growth rates based on increased consumption to increase for their own internal market. As a result, the market has stimulated new forms of competition among states aimed at attracting the production centers of foreign companies by a variety of means, including favorable tax rates and deregulation of the world of work. These processes have led to the search for greater competitive advantages in the world market with a Reduction of social security networks has been paid, which puts workers' rights, fundamental human rights and the solidarity embodied in traditional forms of the welfare state in serious danger. Social security systems can lose their capacity to do their job, not only in poor countries but also in emerging and long-developed countries. Here budgetary policy, with cuts in social spending, which is often also suggested by the international financial institutions, can powerlessly expose citizens to new and old dangers; this impotence is exacerbated by the lack of effective protection from workers' organizations. The totality of the social and economic changes causes the Trade union organizations face greater difficulties in carrying out their task of representing the interests of workers, also because governments often restrict union freedoms or the bargaining power of the unions themselves for reasons of economic benefit. Traditional solidarity networks are faced with growing obstacles. The suggestion from the Social Doctrine of the Church - beginning with the encyclical Rerum novarum[60] - to set up workers' associations to defend their own rights should therefore be followed up even more today than in the past, above all by giving an immediate and far-sighted response to the urgency of creating new forms of cooperation, not just locally, but also to be introduced at international level.

The Labor mobility In connection with the widespread deregulation, an important phenomenon has not been without positive aspects, because it is able to stimulate the production of new assets and the exchange between different cultures. However, when the uncertainty regarding working conditions as a result of processes of mobility and deregulation spreads, forms of psychological instability develop, difficulties in developing one's own consistent life plans, including with regard to marriage. As a result, situations arise not only of social energy being wasted, but also of human decline. If one compares this with what happened in the industrial society of the past, unemployment today provokes new aspects of economic insignificance, and the current crisis can only worsen the situation. Long-term exclusion from work or prolonged dependence on public or private help undermines the person's freedom and creativity, as well as their family and social relationships, resulting in severe psychological and spiritual suffering. I would like to remind everyone, especially those in power who are busy giving the economic and social systems of the world a new profile, that The first capital to be protected and used is the human being, the person in their entirety - "After all, man is the originator, center and goal of all economy". [61]

26. On a cultural level, the difference compared to the time of Pope Paul VI. even more striking. At the time, cultures were pretty well defined and had better chances of protecting themselves from attempts at cultural homogenization. Today have the possibilities of Interaction between cultures have increased considerably and provide space for new perspectives in intercultural dialogue - a dialogue which, in order to be effective, requires the various interlocutors to be deeply aware of their specific identity as a starting point. It should not be forgotten, however, that the increasing commercialization of cultural exchange today poses a twofold danger. In the first place is an often accepted uncritically cultural eclecticism Observe: The cultures are simply placed side by side and viewed as essentially equivalent and interchangeable with one another. This promotes a slide into a relativism that is of little help to true intercultural dialogue; At the social level, cultural relativism causes the cultural groups to live separately and side by side without real dialogue and consequently without real integration. Second, there is the opposite danger, that in the cultural flattening and the standardization of behaviors and lifestyles. In this way the deep meaning of the cultures of the different nations and the traditions of the different peoples in which man deals with the basic questions of existence is lost. [62] Eclecticism and cultural leveling boil down to separating culture from human nature. Thus cultures can no longer find their measure in a nature that goes beyond them, [63] and ultimately reduce man to a mere cultural phenomenon. When that happens, humanity is faced with new dangers of bondage and manipulation.

27. In many poor countries, as a result of food shortages, the extreme insecurity of life continues and runs the risk of worsening: The hunger still takes away countless victims from among the many people like "Lazarus" who are not allowed to sit at the same table with the rich man - like Pope Paul VI. had wished it. [64]Feed the hungry (see. Mt 25, 35.37.42) is an ethical imperative for the universal church, which corresponds to the teachings of its founder Jesus Christ on solidarity and sharing. Eliminating hunger in the world has also become a goal in the era of globalization that must necessarily be pursued in order to preserve peace and stability on earth. Hunger depends less on material scarcity than on a lack of social resources, the most important of which is institutional. In other words, there is a lack of an order of economic institutions that are capable of both guaranteeing proper nutrition and regular access to water and food, as well as coping with the bottlenecks associated with basic needs and emergencies in the event of real food crises are - crises that can have natural causes or are caused by national and international political irresponsibility. The problem of food insecurity needs to be addressed in a long-term perspective, by eliminating the structural causes that create it and by promoting agricultural development in the poorest countries. This can be done through investments in rural infrastructure, in irrigation systems, in transport, in the organization of markets, in the formation and dissemination of suitable agricultural techniques - i.e. investments that are suitable for the human, natural and socio-economic resources that are based on are most accessible at local level, so that the sustainability of these investments is guaranteed in the long term. All of this needs to be done by involving the local communities in the selection of farmland and decisions about its use. From this point of view, it might be helpful to look at the new horizons that a proper use of traditional as well as innovative agricultural production techniques will open up, provided that the latter, when properly assessed, can be found to be functional, environmentally friendly and for the most disadvantaged groups of the population were recognized as beneficial. At the same time, the question of fair agricultural reform in developing countries should not be neglected. The right to food as well as the right to water play an important role in the attainment of other rights, starting with the fundamental right to life. That is why it is necessary that a solidarity-based consciousness matures, which one Food and access to water as universal rights for all people considered without distinctions and discrimination[65] It is also important to clarify how the path of solidarity with poor countries can be a project to resolve the current global crisis; Politicians and those in charge of international institutions have recently grasped this. By supporting the poor countries economically through solidarity-based financing plans so that they themselves ensure that their citizens' demand for consumer goods and development is satisfied, one can not only achieve real economic growth, but also help to maintain the production capacities of the rich countries who are at risk of being affected by the crisis.

28. One of the most obvious aspects of today's development is the importance of the issue of Respect for lifewhich can in no way be separated from questions relating to the development of peoples. It is an aspect that has recently become more and more important and obliges us to extend the concepts of poverty [66] and underdevelopment to the questions connected with the acceptance of life, especially where it is in is hindered in various ways.

Not only is poverty still causing high child mortality rates in many regions, but in various parts of the world there are still government population control practices that often promote contraception and even go so far as to order abortion. In the economically more developed countries the hostile legislation is very widespread and has already had a decisive influence on custom and practice; They help to launch an anti-birth mentality, which one often tries to transfer to other countries as well, as if it represented a cultural advance.

Some non-governmental organizations work actively to promote abortion and sometimes encourage the practice of sterilization in poor countries, including women who are unaware of the importance of the procedure. There are also reasonable grounds to suspect that development aid itself is sometimes tied to certain forms of health policy, which de facto include the imposition of strong birth controls. Legislation that provides for euthanasia is also worrying, as is the pressure from national and international groups demanding their legal recognition.

Openness to life is at the center of true development. If a society takes the path of denial or suppression of life, it will eventually no longer find the necessary motivations and energies to work for the true good of human beings. When the personal and social sense for accepting a new life is lost, other forms of acceptance that are helpful for social life wither too. [67] The acceptance of life strengthens the moral forces and enables one to help one another. If the rich peoples cultivate openness to life, they can better understand the needs of the poor peoples, avoid the use of immense economic and intellectual resources to satisfy the selfish desires of their own citizens, and instead take good action towards a morally sound and solidaristic one Promote production, respecting the fundamental right of every people and every human being to life.

29. There is another aspect of life today that is very closely related to development: the denial of Right to freedom of religion. I am not only referring to the struggles and conflicts that are still fought in the world for religious reasons, even if the religious is sometimes just the cover for reasons other than the greed for domination and wealth. In fact, people today often kill in the holy name of God, as my predecessor Pope John Paul II and I myself have repeatedly publicly emphasized and disapproved of. [68] Violence of all kinds slows down authentic development and hinders the transition of peoples to greater socio-economic and spiritual well-being. This is especially true of terrorism with a fundamentalist background, [69] which causes suffering, devastation and death, blocks dialogue between nations, and draws large funds away from their peaceful and civilian use. It must be added, however, that in addition to religious fanaticism, which in some areas prevents the exercise of the right to religious freedom, the systematic promotion of religious indifference or practical atheism by many countries contradicts the needs of the development of peoples by making them spiritual and deprives human riches. God is the guarantor of the true development of manbecause since he has created him in his own image, he also establishes his transcendent dignity and nourishes his basic desire to "be more". Man is not a lost atom in a random universe, [70] but a creature of God who received from him an immortal soul and has been loved from eternity. If man were only the result of chance or necessity, or if he had to reduce his endeavors to the limited horizon of the situations in which he lives, if everything were history and culture alone and man did not have a nature that determined it is to transcend oneself in a supernatural life, one could speak of growth or evolution, but not of development. When the state promotes, teaches or even enforces forms of practical atheism, it deprives its citizens of the moral and spiritual strength that is indispensable for engagement in holistic human development, and prevents them from revitalizing their own commitment to a more generous human To move forward in response to divine love. [71] It also happens that the economically developed or emerging countries export this degrading view of man and his destiny to poor countries within the framework of their cultural, commercial and political relationships. This is the damage that "overdevelopment" [72] does to genuine development when it is accompanied by "moral underdevelopment" [73].

30. In this direction, the subject of the holistic development of man takes on an even broader scope: the interrelationship between its various elements requires that one strive to find the different levels of human knowledge with a view to promoting the true development of peoples to interact. The opinion is often held that development or the corresponding socio-economic measures only demand their realization as the fruit of joint action. This joint action must be oriented, however, because "all social action presupposes a teaching". [74] In view of the complexity of the problems it is clear that the various disciplines must work together by means of an orderly interdisciplinarity. Love does not exclude knowledge, yes, it demands, promotes and enlivens it from within. Knowledge is never the work of intelligence alone. It can be reduced to a calculation or experiment, but if it wants to be wisdom that is able to orient man in the light of the basic principles and his ultimate goals, then it must be "seasoned" with the "salt" of love. Doing is blind without knowing, and knowing is sterile without love. Because "the true lover [is] inventive in discovering the causes of misery, in finding the means to overcome and eliminate it". [75] In relation to the phenomena lying before us, love in truth requires above all a knowledge and an understanding in consciousness and in respect of the specific competence of each level of knowledge. Love is not a subsequent addition, as it were an appendage to the work already done by the various disciplines, but it is in dialogue with them from the beginning. The claims of love do not contradict those of reason. Human knowledge is insufficient, and the conclusions of the sciences alone cannot point the way to the holistic development of man. It is always necessary Furthermore to advance further - that is what love in truth demands. [76] To go beyond that, however, never means to disregard the conclusions of reason, nor to contradict its results. Intelligence and love are not simply side by side: There is intelligence-rich love and love-filled intelligence.

31. This means that moral evaluations and scientific research must grow together and that love must inspire them in a harmonious interdisciplinary wholeness made up of unity and difference. The social doctrine of the Church, which »an important interdisciplinary dimension«[77] can fulfill a function of extraordinary effectiveness from this perspective. It allows faith, theology, metaphysics and the sciences to find their place in collaboration in the service of man. It is here above all that the social teaching of the Church realizes its dimension based on wisdom. Pope Paul VI had clearly seen how the underdevelopment is caused, among other things, by the fact that there is a lack of wisdom, of reflection, of a way of thinking that is able to set up a trend-setting synthesis; [78] for it »a clear conception on economic, social, cultural and intellectual area ". [79] The exaggerated division of knowledge into subject areas, [80] the closure of the human sciences to metaphysics, [81] the difficulties in the dialogue between the sciences and theology damage not only the development of knowledge but also the development of peoples, because in In these cases the view of the whole well-being of man is obscured in the various dimensions that characterize it. The "expansion of our concept and use of reason" [82] is indispensable in order to be able to adequately weigh up all the elements of the question of the development and solution of socio-economic problems.

32.The great novelties which the overall picture of the development of the peoples exhibits today do in many cases new solutions required. They must be sought in accordance with the laws of each reality and at the same time in the light of a holistic view of man - a view that reflects the various aspects of man as they appear to the gaze purified by love. Then you will discover unique correspondences and concrete possible solutions without giving up any fundamental part of human life.

The dignity of the person and the requirements of justice demand that - especially today - economic decisions do not increase the differences in property in an exaggerated and morally untenable way [83] and that continues to pursue the goal as a priority becomes, to give everyone access to work and to ensure that they can continue to work. Viewed rightly, this also requires "economic reason". The systemic increase in inequality among social groups within a country and among the populations of different countries, or the massive increase in relative poverty, not only tends to undermine social cohesion and thus jeopardize democracy. It also has a negative effect on the economic level: through the progressive erosion of "company capital" or through the undermining of the totality of relationships that are based on trust, reliability and compliance with the rules and which are indispensable for every civil coexistence.

In addition, economics tells us that a structural situation of insecurity creates behaviors that stunt production and waste human resources, inasmuch as the worker tends to passively submit to automatic mechanisms instead of developing creativity. On this point, too, there is a correspondence between economics and moral evaluation. The human price is always also an economic price, and the economic grievances always demand a human price.

It must also be remembered that reducing cultures to the technological dimension, even if it may be beneficial in the short term, hinders mutual enrichment and the dynamics of cooperation in the long term. It is important to distinguish between short-term and long-term economic or sociological considerations. Lowering the level of legal protection for workers or abandoning mechanisms for redistributing profits so that the country can become more competitive internationally prevents long-term development from taking hold. The consequences that the current tendencies towards a short-term, sometimes extremely short-term economy have for people should be carefully weighed up. That requires »a new and deeper reflection on the meaning of the economy and its goals«[84] as well as a profound and far-sighted revision of the development model in order to correct its grievances and distortions. Indeed, this is a requirement of the planet's ecological health; and above all, it is a necessity arising from the cultural and moral crisis of man, the symptoms of which have long been visible in all parts of the world.

33. Over forty years after the encyclical Populorum progressio is their basic theme, just progress, still an open problemwhich has been exacerbated by the current economic and financial crisis and has become even more urgent. If some regions of the world that were once afflicted by poverty have undergone remarkable changes in terms of economic growth and participation in world production, other areas still live in a situation of misery similar to that of the time of Pope Paul VI. is comparable, yes, in some cases one can even speak of a deterioration. It is telling that some causes of this situation are already in Populorum progressio such as the high border tariffs imposed by the economically developed countries, which still prevent the products from the poor countries from entering the markets of the rich countries. Other causes, however, which the encyclical had only hinted at, subsequently emerged more clearly. This is true of the assessment of the decolonization process, which was then in full swing. Pope Paul VI wanted an autonomous course that would take place in freedom and peace. After more than forty years we have to admit how difficult this process has been, be it because of new forms of colonialism and dependence on old and new hegemonic countries, or because of serious irresponsibility within the countries themselves that have made themselves independent.

The main novelty was that Explosion of global interdependencewhich is now generally known as "globalization". Pope Paul VI had partially foreseen it, but the extent and the vehemence with which it has developed are astonishing. Originating in the economically developed countries, this process, by its very nature, has resulted in the involvement of all economies. It was the main driving force behind the emergence of entire regions from underdevelopment and in itself represents a great opportunity. Without the guidance of love in truth, however, this worldwide impulse can help to conjure up the danger of previously unknown damage and new divisions in the human family. That is why love and truth confront us with a completely new and creative commitment, which is of course very extensive and complex. It's about, expand reason and enable it to recognize and direct these impressive new dynamicsby animating them in the sense of that "culture of love", the seeds of which God has planted in every people and in every culture.




34. The Love in truth presents people with the amazing experience of the gift. The gratuitousness is present in many forms in his life, which, however, are often not recognized due to a merely productivist and utilitarian view of existence. Man is made for the gift that expresses and implements his transcendent dimension. Sometimes modern man is mistakenly convinced that he is the sole author of himself, his life and society. This arrogance is a result of the egotistical closing-in on oneself and, in terms of faith, comes from the Original sin The wisdom of the Church has always suggested that original sin should also be taken into account when interpreting social conditions and when building society: “To overlook the fact that man has a wounded, evil-inclined nature leads to grave errors in the realm of the Education, politics, social action and morality ". [85] The economy has long been part of the list of areas in which the harmful effects of sin are manifested. Our time also provides us with obvious evidence of this. The conviction of self-sufficiency and of being able to overcome the evils present in history through one's own actions alone has led people to find happiness and salvation in immanent forms of material prosperity and social commitment to see. Furthermore, the conviction that the economy requires autonomy and must not allow moral "manipulation" has pushed people to abuse the tool of the economy in even destructive ways. In the long run, these beliefs have led to economic, social and political systems that have suppressed the freedom of individuals and groups in society and for that very reason have been unable to deliver the justice they promised. As I did in my encyclical Spe salvi have written, you remove the christian hope from history, [86] which however represents a powerful potential in the service of the comprehensive development of man, which is sought in freedom and justice. Hope encourages reason and gives it the power to direct the will. [87] She is already present in the faith by which she is positively awakened. Love in truth feeds on it and at the same time makes it visible. Since hope is an entirely gratuitous gift from God, it enters our lives as something innocent that goes beyond any law of righteousness. In its essence, the gift surpasses merit, its law is excess. It precedes us in our soul as a sign of God's presence in us and his expectation of us. St. Augustine teaches that truth, which like love is a gift, is greater than we are. [88] The truth about ourselves, about our own knowledge, is first of all “given” to us. Because in every process of knowledge the truth is not generated by us, but always found, or better, received. Truth, like love, "does not come from thinking and willing, but, as it were, overpowers people". [89]

Since love in truth is a gift that everyone receives, it represents a force that creates community that unites people in a way that knows no barriers and boundaries. The community of men can be established by ourselves, but by our own efforts it will never be a completely fraternal community and overcome all boundaries, that is, become a truly universal community: the unity of the human race, a fraternal community beyond any division, is born of the summoning Word of God which is love. In dealing with this crucial question we must on the one hand make it clear that the logic of the gift does not exclude justice or is added to it in a second moment and from outside, and on the other hand that an economic, social and political development that wants to be truly human, the Principle of gratuitousness as an expression of brotherhood.

35. The market is, if there is mutual and general trust, the economic institution that enables the meeting between people who, as economic operators, regulate their relationships by means of a contract and exchange goods and services that can be offset against each other in order to satisfy their needs and wishes. The market is subject to the principles of the so-called compensatory justice