What is inductive action in chemistry

Summary of inductive and mesomeric effects

Inductive effect

positive inductive effect = + I effectnegative inductive effect = -I effectreduces the ______________ partial charge on the _________________ bearing carbon atoms of the carboxyl group and
______________________ thus the potential anionincreases through induction the _________________ partial charge on the _________________ bearing carbon atoms of the carboxyl group and
______________________ thus the potential anionSubstituents with + I effect:
(CH3)3C-> (CH3)2C-> C2H5-> CH3 -> HSubstituents with -I effect:
H 3O- <-I <-Br <-Cl <-NO2 <-F

Mesomeric effect

+ M effect-M effectreduces the _______________ partial charge on which the hydroxyl group
carrying carbon atom of the carboxyl group via __________________ via
conjugated bonds and ___________ ___________ thus the potential anion.increases the _______________ partial charge on which the hydroxyl group
carrying carbon atom of the carboxyl group via ________________ via
conjugated bonds and ___________ ___________ thus the potential anion.Substituents with + M effect:
-O+R.2 <-OR <-O-;
-F <-OR <-NR2;
-I <-Br <-Cl <-FSubstituents with -M-effect:

-CH = CH2 <-C6H5 <-COOR <-C / N <-CRO 2: Increase from left to right!

Effects of both effects

+ I- and + M-effect ___________________ thus the detachment of the H-atom as-I- and -M-effect ___________________ so that the detachment of the H-atom as_____________________ so the acidity!_____________________ so the acidity!_____________ thus increase the pKs value_____________ thus increase the pKs value__________ so that the H+-Ion concentration__________ so that the H+-Ion concentration________________ thus the _______ value of equally concentrated solutions.________________ thus the _______ value of equally concentrated solutions.