What are the uses of industrial oil



Oils (from Latin oleum; from Greek έλαιον, "olive oil") is a collective term for liquids that cannot be mixed with water and are more difficult to evaporate than water. Their chemical composition, origin and use, however, are very different.

Groups of oils

Fatty oils

Fatty oils are fats, i.e. mixtures of fatty acid triglycerides that are liquid at room temperature. The low melting point is mainly caused by a high proportion of "unsaturated" or "polyunsaturated" fatty acids.

  • Lots vegetable oils (such as sunflower oil, olive oil) are used, among other things, as food and are therefore also known as edible oils. (For more examples see.)

Essential oils

Essential oils are oily, steam-volatile extracts from plants or parts of plants that have a strong, characteristic odor depending on the plant of origin. They are mostly made up of terpenes. (Example: lemon oil).

Mineral oils

Mineral oils are obtained from petroleum or coal and are hydrocarbon compounds. From a chemical point of view, most of the compounds in the substance mixtures belong to the alkanes. The naturally occurring crude oils are mostly contaminated and contain e.g. sulfur.

Mineral oils are the starting material for many compounds in organic chemistry, for example for the manufacture of plastics.

Mineral oils are preferably used as an energy source and converted into fuel (refined). They are therefore one of the most important energy sources of our civilization (for example heating oil, diesel oil, heavy oil). Mineral oils are also used for lubrication purposes, which means keeping metallic, moving surfaces at a distance so that they do not come into direct contact with wear and tear (Lubricating oil).

Highly volatile substances, also obtained from petroleum, such as gasoline or kerosene are not counted among the oils.

So-called Synthetic oils are also based on petroleum raffinates, have a special molecular structure that does not occur in crude oil. Synthetically produced hydrocarbons are added. The assumption that synthetic oils are produced chemically and only contain substances that do not occur in nature is incorrect.

Silicone oils

Silicone oils are based on polymers and copolymers of silicon-oxygen units and organic side chains. They are relatively insensitive to oxidation, heat and other influences. In addition to being used as lubricants in industry, they are also used in personal care products or special industrial applications (e.g. defoaming).

Applications

  • As a lubricant, see lubricating oil
  • Fuel / fuel: diesel fuel, heating oil
  • Hydraulic fluid
  • Heat transfer medium too Thermal oil is used to transfer thermal energy in heat transfer systems. It is heated in heaters and transported via pipelines to the places where a product has to be heated. This takes place in a closed cycle. The big advantage of thermal oil over water is the significantly higher boiling point. In this way a temperature of over 300 ° C can be reached. Thermal oil can be made from synthetic oils as well as organic oils.
  • Wave calming oil was used in shipping to reduce the swell on the high seas.

miscellaneous

  • Under one Oils one also understands an oil mill in German-speaking Switzerland.
  • Oil and water can be mixed with the help of surfactants (emulsifiers). Emulsions are formed. Milk is also an emulsion made from water and oil.
  • Fatty oils can be converted into solid fats (margarine) by hydrogenation (fat hardening) of the unsaturated fatty acids.
  • The expression “It goes down like oil” describes the “departure” of beer, compare Danish Oil or English ale.

Category: Oil