Is ozone a coordinate bond
Use of DZZ and GIS data processing technologies in higher educational institutions. GIS and remote sensing, what's so codpzz
Rosyikina E. A., Ivlya N. G.
Process remote acquisition data
In ArcGIS1 GIS package
Annotation. The article discusses the possibility of using the ARCGIS GIS package to handle the remote splitting of the earth. Particular attention is paid to the definition and analysis of the vegetative index NDVI.
Keywords: remote sensing, satellite snapshot, GIS package ArcGIS, NDVI vegetation index.
ROSYAIKINA E. A. IVLIEVA N. G.
Processing of RemoteNet data by ArcGIS software
ABSTRACT. The article considers the use of ArcGIS software to process captured RemoteNet data. The authors concentrate on the calculation and analysis of the vegetation index (NDVI).
Keywords: remote sensing, satellite image, ArcGIS software, vegetation index (NDVI).
Remote Data Collection (DDZ) processing is an area that has been actively developing for many years, and everything is tightly integrated with GIS. Recently, space information has been widely used in research activities
Raster data is one of the main types of spatial data in GIS. They can represent satellite images, aerial photographs, regular digital relief models, thematic grids obtained as a result of GIS analysis and geo-information modeling.
The ARCGIS GIS package has a number of tools to work with raster data, which enables DDZ to be processed directly at ArcGIS, as well as to further analyze the analysis with the GIS analysis functions. Fully integrated with ARCGIS, you can quickly transform spatially coordinated raster data from one cartographic projection to another, convert and coordinate image binding to convert the raster to vector format and vice versa.
In previous versions of ArcGIS for professional raster image processing, optional image analysis was required. In the last versions
1 The article was supported by the RFBR (Project No. 14-05-00860 - A).
ArcGIS in the standard set added a number of features to work with the races, many of which are available in the new Image Analysis window. It contains four structural elements: a window with a list of open grid layers; Options button to set of standard parameters for some tools; Two sections of tools ("Display" and "Processing").
In the "Display" section, the settings are brought together, which improves the visual perception of images on the monitor screen. In the "Processing" section, the "Processing" section shows a number of functions for working with Rastics. The studies have shown that the "Window Processing" window in the image analysis window (image analysis) with Raresteln in ArcMap is much easier. The ArcGIS program also supports the controlled and uncontrolled classification of digital images. For analysis, you can pull the characteristics of additional spatial analyst and 3D analyst modules.
For the study we have images used Landsat 4-5 TM images: Multi-Zone (archived set of images in Geotiff format) and a synthesized snapshot in natural colors in a JPEG format with coordinate binding. The spatial resolution of space snapshots is 30 meters. The images are obtained from the US Geological Service's Earthsplorer service. The level of processing of the original multi-zone space - L1. Such processing of the processing of images by Landsat offers its radiometric and geometrical correction with digital relief models (correction of the earth). Initial map projection UTM, coordinate system of Graf WGS-84.
To form a synthetic image - a widely used brightness conversion of a multizon snapshot, a "combining" group of the group of raster tools was used. Depending on the specific task, the channels can be different.
When processing a multispectral image, the conversions are often performed, the images from "index" images. Based on mathematical operations with matrices of brightness values in certain channels, a raster image is created, pixel values are assigned a calculated "spectral index". Further research is carried out based on the resulting picture.
So-called vegetative indices are widely used for researching and evaluating the pattern of vegetation. They are based on the differences in the brightness of the pixels in the images in the visible and neighboring infrared parts of the spectrum. There are currently around 160 vegetable index options. They are selected experimentally based on
from the known characteristics of the curve spectral reflectivity of vegetation and soil.
The focus of our study was to study the distribution and dynamics of the vegetative NDVI index. The main area of application of this index is to determine the harvest condition of cereal crops.
With the NDVI button you can use the image analysis window to configure images in the vicinity of infrared (NIR) and the red (red) shooting areas and calculate the so-called NDVI vegetation index as a normalized difference between their values.
The formula for calculating the NDVI used in ArcGIS is changed: NDVI \ u003d (NIR - red) / (Nir + red)) * 100 + 100.
This results in an 8-bit integer image because the range of cell values calculated is 0 to 200.
NDVI can be calculated manually using the Raster Calculator tool in Spatial Analyst. In ArcGIS, the NDVI calculation equation to create the output data is as follows:
NDVI \ u003d Float (Nir - red) / Float (NIR + red)).
The work was examined by the time-based values of the NDVI index calculated on the agricultural land of the household "Krasinskoye" Dubensky district of the Republic of Mordovia. The shoot was carried out by the Landsat 4-5 TM satellite in 2009. Date Nationals: April 24, May 19, June 4, August 5, September 23, September 29. Dates are chosen so that each of them falls on a different period of plant vegetation.
The NDVI values were calculated to aid the raster calculator tool in the spatial analyst. Figure 1 shows the result of operations carried out in a specially selected color scale throughout the Dubensky district.
The index is calculated as the difference in reflectance values in the near infrared and red spectrum regions divided by their sum. As a result, the NDVI values vary in the range from -1 to 1, for the green vegetation, which has a large reflective ability in the near infrared spectrum range and absorbs radiation in the red region, the NDVI values cannot be less than 0. The Causes of the negative values are mainly cloudy, reservoirs and snow cover. Very small values of NDVI (less than 0.1) correspond to areas with a lack of vegetation, values from 0.2 to 0.3 are bushes and meadows, large values (from 0.6 to 0.8) - forests. On the studied area of the received rastors that represent
nDVI values are easy to identify water objects, thick vegetation,
clouds and highlight settlements.
Scaled sh1 values.
Cowardly. 1. Synthesized COW1 distribution grid.
Fields involved in this or other agricultural crops are more complicated, especially due to the fact that the growing season varies in different crops, and the maximum of Phytomass falls on different dates. Therefore, as a source, the scheme of the fields of agricultural crops of the "Krasinskoye" district, Dubensky district, was used as the source for 2009 in GIS, the coordinate binding of the fields involved in agricultural harvests was carried out. To study changes in the values of the Cou1 index, test sections have been allocated for the growing season.
The software of raster systems allows statistical analysis of the distribution lines compiled in all the values of the elements of the raster or from individual values (which falls within any range).
Next, using the "spatial analyst" module to the table "spatial analyst" with the values of the cells under the selected zones (sections with different cultures) were described, descriptive index statistics - the maximum, minimum and average value, variation, RMS deviation and sum (Fig. 2). Such calculations are made on each date of the films.
Cowardly. 2. Define NDVI values with the spatial analyst tool "Zone Statistics in Table".
On its basis, the dynamics of a statistical indicator was examined, calculated on individual agricultural crops. Thus, Table 1 shows a change in the average values of the imported index that is being examined.
Mean values of the NDVI Farm Crops index
Winter wheat 0.213 0.450 0.485 0.371 0.098 0.284
Corn 0.064 0.398 0.260 0.398 0.300 0.300 0.136
Barley 0.068 0.082 0.172 0.474 0.362 0.019
Brewery 0.172 0.383 0.391 0.353 0.383 0.391 0.353 0.180 0.147
Perennial herbs 0.071 0.196 0.443 0.474 0.318 0.360 0.360
Annual herbs 0.152 0.400 0.486 0.409 0.320 0.404 0.409 0.320 0.404
Clean pairs 0.174 0.233 0.274 0.215 0.205 0.336 0.336
The picture of the variation of various numerical statistical features of the K0U1 index values for the growing season shows graphical images more clearly. Figure 3 shows the graphs built according to the average index values for individual crops.
Cowardly. 3. Dynamics of Cou1 values on the territory occupied by: a) winter wheat; b) barley; c) corn.
It can be pointed out that the minima and maxima of the values of the CBU! We fall on different dates due to the different length of each crop's growing season and the number of Phytomass. For example the greatest value of the CBU! Winter wheat comes on the second decade of June, and corn - early July. A gradual increase in phytoma is observed in barley and annual herbs. Small values of pure steam throughout the growing season are associated with the fact that it is processed in open soil and an increase in the value of the CBU! In September, in theory, it can be associated with the sowing of winter crops.
CBU values! Are related to the location of the studying territory, especially exposure and angle of inclination. For clarity is a synthesized grid with the values of the CBU! On August 23, it was combined with a washed relief built on the basis of a global digital model of the BATM relief (Fig. 4). It can be seen that in the places of decline (valleys of rivers, ravines) the values of the CBU! More.
Cowardly. 4. Combine a grid with the values of the CBU! And black and white relief wash.
In addition to the snapshots of Baap1, calculate the values of the CBU! Other DDZs can use the MOBC spectroradiometer data, for example.
Based on the calculated Rapid values of the CBU! For example, various maps can build agricultural resource assessment maps of the region, monitoring crops, assessing biomass of non-timber vegetation, estimating land reclamation efficiency, assessing pasture productivity, etc., etc.
The student studies clearly showed the possibility of using the ARCGIS GIS package to process remote sensing of the earth, including the computation and analysis of the NDVI cultivation register, the main scope of which remains the determination of the crop status of the sowing.
1. ABROSIVOV A. V., Dvorkin B. A. Perspectives for the use of DZZ data from space for
increase the efficiency of agriculture in Russia // GEOMATICS. - 2009. № 4. - pp. 46-49.
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analysis of geo-mixing for agroecological assessment of land // news from higher education institutions. Geodesy and aerial view. - 2012. - № 2/1. - pp. 40-44.
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Neckuroprirzone of the Russian Federation // Modern problems of remote sensing of the earth from space. - 2012. - T. 9, No. 1. - pp. 57-64.
4. Ivlya N. G. Creating maps with GIS technologies: studies. Permission for
students studying "Cartography" in the specialty 020501 (013700). -Saransk: Mordov Publishing House. University, 2005. - 124 p.
5. Manukhov VF, VARFOLOMEVA N.A., VARFOLOMEYEV A. F. With space
information in the process of educational and research activities of students // geodesy and cartography. - 2009. № 7. - pp. 46-50.
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Aerospace training for graduates of geographers-cartographers // educational informatics. - 2013. - № 2. - pp. 27-33.
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classification of crops from farm culture // ecology and noosphere. - 2009. № 1: 2. -VON. 54-58.
8. Roseykina E. A., Ivlya N. G. Remote sensing data management
Earth in the ARCGIS GIS package environment // Cartography and geodesy in the modern world: MAT-LIES 2. VSeros. scientific study. conf., Saransk, April 8. 2014 / rartic .: V. F. Manukhov (AVD. Ed.) And others. - Saransk: Publisher. University, 2014. - from 150-154.
9. Silver O. L., Glebova K. S. Processing in the fly and dynamic preparation
Mosaic raster images in ArcGIS: A new solution to traditional problems.
[Electronic Resource] // ARCreview. - 2011. № 4 (59). - Access mode: http://dataplus.ru/news/arcreview/.
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11. Cherepanov A. S. Vegetation indices // Geomatics. - 2011. № 2. - pp. 98-102.
09/20/2018, THU, 10:51, MSK, text: Igor KorolevThe "Digital Economics" program takes on a whole series of measures to ensure the availability of spatial data and data from remote surveys of the earth, a total of 34.9 billion. There are plans to create portals for both types of data, build a federal network of geodetic iron stations, and control the efficiency of federal budget plans from space.
The "Information Infrastructure" section of the "Digital Economics" program includes the creation of domestic digital platforms to collect, process and distribute spatial and remote sensing Earth (CZP) data from space to meet the needs of citizens, business and power. CNEWS estimates that the cost of the relevant activities will be $ 34.9 billion, most of which will be taken from the federal budget.
Initially, it is planned to develop a glossary of terms in the area of working with spatial data and DZZ data from space. In the same areas, including the products and services created based on them, tasks need to be delivered and the requirements for research into the exploration of digital economy needs in domestic services and technologies of collection, processing, distribution and analysis are formed.
The Ministry of Economic Development, Ministry of Communications, Roskosmos, Rosreest, Rostelecom, Moscow State University is engaged in relevant work. M.V. Lomonosov and the "Aeronet" working group of the National Technological Initiative (NTI). For these purposes, it will be spent at € 88 million, of which ₽ 65 million will be allocated to the federal budget. It should be noted that, according to Russian legislation, these DZZ do not relate to spatial data.
In parallel, architecture and road map of the creation of the creation of the collection, storage, process, processing and sales infrastructure generation are being developed for spatial data and DZZ data from space. The infrastructure works on the basis of an interdepartmental uniform territorial distributed information system (ETRIS dZZ).
This takes "Roskosmos", "Rostelecom" and the Ministry of Economic Development. The cost of the event is 85 million, of which ₽65 million will be allocated to the federal budget.
The use of certified remote sensing data of the earth needs to be regulated. Federal legislation is being changed to consolidate the status of the Federal Domain Fund.
A roadmap for relevant regulatory support will also be developed. The requirements for the provision and the procedure for the determination in the electronic form of spatial data and material and DZ data contained in the relevant federal fund are regulated.
The normative actions are anchored in the generation of a DCZ data certification system from space and its processing algorithms in order to generate legally significant data and the procedure for using certified DZZ data from space and the data obtained from other methods of remote sensing of the earth, to obtain in economic human trafficking. These events will be busy in Roskosmos, Rostelecom, Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Economic Procedures and NTI "Aeronet".
The next step is to provide ways to provide in electronic form spatial data and materials that are contained in the Federal Fund of Spatial Data, as well as the DZZ data contained in the respective Federal Fund.
For this purpose, the state information system is a federal portal of spatial data (GIS FPD), which enables access to the information contained in the federal spatial data fund.
First, the concept of the corresponding system is created. - by April 2019 - it will be put into trial operation, and by the end of 2019 it will be put into industrial operation by the end of 2019. Development, start and modernization of GIS FPD costs the federal budget in § 625 million.
In GIS, the FPD is created by the subsystem "Digital Platform of Interdepartmental Geonformation Interaction". Its launch in the trial operation will take place in November 2019, costs the federal budget of a further ₽50 million.
Plans to link this subsystem to the Federal Data Fund, Spatial Data Fund and state-owned facilities to provide materials made available to their disposal are being developed. The relevant activities will be carried out in the Ministry of Economic Development, Rosreir and Roscosmos.
It is also planned to provide the ability to provide the automatic mode with the coordinates of the established information on disposal of the state authorities and local self-government.
First, the economic effects are assessed, that it is possible to achieve the requirements for the parameters of the disclosure of spatial data and the DATADZs available to the state authorities. Then changes to the list of information (as well as their details and formats) are displayed, which are provided in an automated mode with coordinates with the list of these information authorities in an automated mode.
An automated cartographic service will be developed and put into operation by the end of 2019, which will provide the determination of thematic information with the coordinates of the state institutions. The relevant work will be used in the Ministry of Economic Revision, Roskosmos, Rosreir, FSB and the Ministry of Defense, on its implementation, the federal budget will allocate ₽250 million.
In addition, it is possible to automate the processing, discovery, verification of accuracy, and use of spatial data. For this purpose, functional requirements are being developed for the aforementioned means, including systems for the automated generation of features of features as well as for the means for monitoring changes in location.
The aim is to ensure compliance with the requirements for the frequency of updating the spatial data resources. Experienced operation of the relevant funds should start in September 2019, industrial operation - until the end of 2020
An infrastructure of experimental polygons should also be created for testing robotic complexes used to collect and process spatial data. The estimates are employed in the Ministry of Economic Development, Rosreir and NTI "Aeronet".
Domesticgeographic informationBYto theorgansgosvesti.
Another part of the document is to ensure the development and use of domestic geospatial information technologies in state and local government agencies as well as the HSOCP. The requirements for relevant software are developed and published on the Internet.
A list of software that meets the specified requirements is then created, taking into account the unified register of Russian software. An investigation of promising technologies and management models with geo-information technologies and domestic DZZ data in state reasons and methodological recommendations for the transition to domestic software in these areas are being developed.
In addition, monitoring and analysis of the use of software of geographic information systems in information systems of government systems and state bodies are carried out. Thereafter, there are plans of action by federal and regional agencies, local governments, and state agencies to ensure the use of domestic software in the technology. These events are used by the Ministry of Economic Procedures, the Ministry of Communications, Roskosmos and Rostelecom.
4,8 billionon thefederalnetworkgeodetic.stations
The action plan includes the creation of a single geodetic infrastructure required for the task, clarification and distribution of state and local coordinate systems. The corresponding activities are used in mining, Rosandart, Bundesforschung, Roskosmos, HSOPDN and Roskartography Center and Roskartography JSC.
For this purpose, the research work is first carried out to clarify the parameters of the figure and the gravitational field, the geodetic parameters of the earth, the other parameters necessary to clarify the state coordinate systems, the state height system, the state gravimetric system and the rationale for the development of the geodetic network.
The state accounting and maintenance of the state geodetic network (GTS), the state leveling network, the state gravimetric network is ensured. The system of monitoring the characteristics of the points of the GTS, state levels and gravimetric networks is organized, and the development of the domestic network of geological stations of geodetic observation is ensured. For these purposes, the federal budget will allocate 2018-20. ₽3.18 billion
Next, the service will be created that ensures the definition of the movements of the earth's crust caused by natural and anthropogenic geodynamic processes, as well as the service of determining and clarifying the parameters of the precise orbits of navigational spacecraft and spacecraft remote sensing of the earth.
In the next stage, a federal network of geodetic stations will be created, which will ensure an increase in the accuracy of determining the coordinates, as well as the center for the integration of networks of geodetic stations, as well as the center for the integration of networks of geodetic stations and the processing of the information received. First, the concept of the relevant network is developed, which includes services and geography of their use, technical and economic indicators for the creation and operation of the network.
By August 2019, the "pilot zones" of the federal network of geodetic base stations will be commissioned and put into operation in at least three regions. The center for the integration of geodetic station networks is also started. Taking into account the experiences of the "pilot zones", a technical task is created for the future network.
The network itself will acquire by the end of 2020, its creation and launch will be spent ₽1.65 billion 55 billion. At the same time, ₽1.35 billion will be taken from the federal budget, the remaining budget00 million extra-budgetary sources. The total cost of creating and maintaining the geodetic infrastructure is ₽483 billion.
19 billionon theUnitedelectronicallycartographicFoundation, endowment
Another project embedded in the document is the creation of a single electronic cartographic base (EEC) and the state system of the IEO. First, the concept is created, the technical task of the sketch project GIS EEO. The introduction of the system in test operation will take place in April 2019 in the industry - and at the end of 2019
Next, the basis of the GIS EEO will be created, including on the basis of open digital topographic maps and plans drawn up in a federal spatial data fund, and the creation of a basic high-precision (scale 1: 2000) layer of spatial data territories with high population density in the interest the GIS EKO aggregation.
The target composition and structure of data and services of the IEO, methods and algorithms for the use of the cartographic base and spatial data in the interest of different groups of consumers and the list of possibilities to use distributed registration technologies (blockchain) should be developed.
There are also plans to create a promising GIS EWG model for the use of different categories of consumers, including automated and robotic systems. Relevant events are busy in Rosreir, the Ministry of Economic Development and NTI "Aeronet". Events related to GIS EEO cost the federal budget in ₽19.32 billion.
The document includes ensuring the determination in the electronic form of remote sensing of the earth and the materials contained in the federal DVP fund. For this purpose, the modernization of information technology mechanisms (within the framework of the Roscosmos information systems) of the system, access to data from the Russian spacecraft remote sensing of the earth and the geoportal of the state corporation Roscosmos will be maintained.
A concept, technical task and sketch project of the state information system The Federal Portal for Remote Sensing Data from Space (GIS FDDDZ) is being developed, whereby access to the information from space contained in the Federal DZZ data fund can be accessed.
The introduction of GIS FPDDZ into test operation will take place in industrial operation by the end of 2019 - the project will deal with Roskosmos by the end of 2020. The federal budget will allocate ₽315 million for relevant goals.
A single seamless massive multilayer coating of GBZ data from a room with different spatial resolutions is also created. Relevant events are busy in Roskosmos, Rosreir and Mincoeonism, they cost the federal budget in ₽6.44 billion.
For this purpose, the concept of the corresponding, high-resolution coating (2-3 meters) is first created. By the end of 2018, a technological kit of a continuous high-precision, seamless coating of a high spatial resolution (SBP-B) according to DZZ data was generated from the Russian spaceship with an accuracy not worse than 5 meters. In particular, the definition of additional reference points as a result of field work and measurements on space shots is used.
In 2018, the SBP-B will be used in the areas of the priority areas with a total area of 2.7 million square meters. In 2019, the SBP-B will be deployed in the territory of the regions of the second stage with a total area of 2.9 million square meters. In 2020, the SBP-B will be deployed on the territory of the rest of the regions, including high-density areas with a total area of 11.4 million square kilometers.
In parallel, a set of massive multi-scale coating coating of mass consumption (CB-M) data from multispectral shooting from the Russian spaceship DSC with the accuracy in terms of high resolution is not worse than 15 m.
In 2018, the SBP-M will be deployed on the territory of the priority areas with a total area of 2.7 million square meters. 2019 - on the territory of the regions of the second stage with a total area of 2.9 square meters. In 2020, the SBP-M will be deployed in other territories with a total area of 11.4 million square meters.
In 2020, based on a set of a solid, high-precision, seamless, seamless coating of high spatial resolution and a set of fixed, multi-scale mass consumption, a single seamless multilayer coating of remote Earths (EBSPSR) will be created. The state information system (GIS) of the EBSPSR is also started in the test process.
As a result, an information base should be obtained that ensures the stability and competitiveness of the measurement properties of domestic DZZ data for space and products. The technology and basic information framework are also created for the formation of a variety of applied customer-facing services and services based on SDP technologies and information support from third-party information systems.
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It is planned to provide automated processing, recognition, confirmation and use of DZZ data from space. For this purpose, experimental studies are carried out first, the development of technologies and the automatic streaming and distributed processing of DZZ data from space with the creation of elements of standardization of output information products.
Relevant funds and unified software will be initiated into a test operation from 2020. Industrial operation will be included until the end of 2020. The project is employed in Roskosmos, the Ministry of Economic Development and Rosreir, with federal budget spending at ₽975 million.
The future unified hardware and software for the primary processing of DZZ data from space with elements of the standardization of information resources will be issued on the basis of territorially distributed cloud computing resources of the ground-based spatial infrastructure of the GBZ resources.
In 2018, a concept, agendas and technologies for the creation of a CDP of specialized industry services for the information of the following industries will be developed: subsoil use, forestry, water management, agriculture, transport, construction and others
Samples of uniform complexes of distributed processing and storage of information are designed to solve the tasks of the operator of Russian space systems from space with the maximum degree of automation and standardization of processing, automatic quality control, maintenance and operation. The level of standardization of the special software is up to 80%.
The technologies of the automatic streaming formation of standard and basic information products of the DZP are implemented at the request of users via the subsystem in order to provide consumer access and to issue within 1.5 hours after targeted information from the Received room exams from the DZP.
In addition, polygonal instrumentation was created to control the control of the spectrometer, radiometric and coordinate measurement properties of room machines and the verification of information products for DZZ from space as well as instrumental and methodical support for the DZ data certification body from space.
Roskosmos creates a territorially distributed computing resource for streaming DZZ data
Another direction of the plan for the implementation of the activities of the Digital Economy program in the section "Information Infrastructure" is to ensure the development and use of domestic processing technologies (including thematic) DZP data in the Govesta and local self-governing bodies, as well as state-owned enterprises.
As part of the implementation of this idea, the creation and modernization of the territorial and distributed computing resource in order to provide the streaming data processing of DZZ from the area as part of data centers and computing heaps of ground reception complexes, the processing and distribution of DZZ data will be carried out from. The project is employed in Roscosmos.
In 2019, the relevant activities in 2020 will take place in the European zone of Russia - a distance on land. The federal budget ₽ 690 million is allocated for these purposes.
In parallel, development and modernization of hardware and software solutions as well as applied customer-oriented services of rural and forestry based on SBZ technologies from space, this costs the federal budget in ₽180 million.
Also in 2018, the concept, nomenclature and technology of creation based on special industrial services based on the following industries: subsoil use, forestry, water management, agriculture, transportation, construction and others. The Ministry of Economic Development will solve these tasks together with Roscosmos.
In 2019, other industries will be selected to develop similar services and solutions. In 2020, service solutions will be developed in pilot zones with subsequent entry into test operation, the relevant activities cost the federal budget in ₽460 million.
In 2018, a service control service aimed at the efficient use of the federal budget and the budget of state extra budget funds, which aim to finance all construction sites, will be designed and established. This is done in Roskosmos and the account chamber, the federal budget will allocate 3.18 million to this project.
Similarly, a service control service will be created in the direction of the use of federal budget funds aimed at funding infrastructure projects and special economic zones. The relevant resource will be designed and rolled out in trial operation by the end of 2018, and industrial operation will begin in June 2019.The cost of the project to the federal budget will be fine. EUR 125 million.
A service control over the space survey on the use of federal budget funds aimed at preventing and eliminating emergency situations and the effects of natural disasters (fire, floods, etc.), as well as the effects of pollution and other negative effects on the environment. The federal budget will spend ₽170 million on the project.
A service to determine the effectiveness and compliance with the regulatory acts of the process of funding, management and disposal by federal and other resources is being created: forest, water, mineral, etc. The federal budget will spend ₽155 million.
A similar service will be created to ensure control of economic activities to detect violations of land laws and establishment of land use facts so as not to appoint and determine the economic damage. The project costs the federal budget in § 125 million EUR.
Another planned service will ensure an assessment of the prospects for different types of economic activities (agriculture, construction, recreation, etc.). The cost of the project for the federal budget is 145 million.
The identification service of changes in the territory of the regions of Russia for the purpose of determining the pace of their development, decisions on planning and optimizing budgetary funds are also created. The federal budget will allocate ₽160 million to this project.A characteristic feature of the process of introducing geographic information technologies is currently the integration of existing systems in general national, international and global information structures. First, let's turn to projects without the last time. In this regard, the experience of developing global information programs and projects within the framework of the international geosubstics biosphere program "Global Changes" (IGHP) has been relevant since 1990 and has had a major influence on the course of geographic and ecological work on a global, regional and national scale [V. M. Kotlyakov, 1989]. Among the various international and large national geographic information projects, as part of the IGP, we only mention the global information and resource database - grid. It was formed in the structure of the Environmental Monitoring System (Gems) under the auspices of the 1975 area of the United Nations Environment Programs (UNEP). Gems consisted of global surveillance systems established by various UN organizations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), World Health Organization (WHO), international unions and seven countries, participating in one way or another Program. The monitoring networks are organized within five blocks related to climate, human health, ocean environment, moving pollution, renewable natural resources. Each of these blocks is described in Article [A. M. Trofimov et al., 1990]. Climate-related monitoring has provided data defining the impact of human activity on Earth's climate, including two directions related to the work of the Background Atmospheric Monitoring Network and the Global Glossy Inventory. The first concerns the establishment of trends in atmospheric composition (changes in the content of carbon dioxide, ozone, etc.), as well as trends in the chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation. The Background Atmospheric Pollution Monitoring Stations (BAPMON) are organized by WHO in 1969, and since 1974 it has supported UNEP as part of Gems. It includes three types of monitoring stations: basic, regional and regional with an expanded program. The data is reported monthly to the coordination center located at the Intergovernmental Agency for the Environment (ELE) (Washington, USA). Since 1972, data with WMO materials has been published annually. The global glycological inventory is linked to UNESCO and its Federal Technology. The information they collect is very important as the vibrations of glacier and snow masses give an idea of the progression of climatic variability. The moving pollution control program is implemented in conjunction with the European Economic Commission (ECE) and WMO plants. Data on contaminated maturity (especially sulfur oxides and their transformed products are collected, with which acid rain is usually associated with the movement of air masses from pollution sources to individual objects. 1977, ECE, in collaboration with UNEP and the, formulated a joint program for monitoring and assessment of long-distance transmission of air pollution in Europe (European Monitoring and Assessment Program). Human health-related monitoring provides a collection of data on environmental quality at global level, on radiation, on changes in ultraviolet radiation (as a result of exhaustion the ozone layer) etc. This GEMS program is largely related to the activities of the World Health Organization (WHO). The joint monitoring of water quality has been carried out by organizations UNEP, der, UNESCO and WMO. The emphasis here is on the water of Fluss en, lakes and soil, d. H. This is the main source to provide people with water with water, to irrigation, some industries, etc. food pollution monitoring in the jewels that have been in existence since 1976 in collaboration with WHO and FAO. Contaminated food data provides information on the nature of the spread of pollution, which in turn serves as the basis for management solutions of various ranks. Monitoring of the ocean environment has been considered in two aspects: monitoring of the open ocean and regional seas. Renewal resource monitoring program activities are based on preferences to monitor the resources of arid and semi-walled lands, soil degradation, rainforest. Organized in 1985, the GRIST system is an information service provided by environmental management organizations of the United Nations and other international organizations and governments. The main function of the GRID is to bring together data in order to synthesize it, in order to synthesize it in such a way that the staff of the planning bodies can quickly absorb the material and make it available to national and international solutions that may affect the environment. In its comprehensive development at the turn of the year, the system is implemented as a global hierarchically organized network including regional centers and nodes at the national level with broad interoperability of data. Grid is a dispersed (distributed) system, the assemblies of which are connected to one another by telecommunication. The system is divided into two main centers: grid control in Nairobi (Kenya) and grid processor in Geneva (Switzerland). The Nairobi center monitors and manages grid activities worldwide. The grid processor is associated with data acquisition, monitoring, modeling and data distribution. Due to global problems, the Geneva Center is currently active in the global environmental outlook series, which is developing a strategy and ensuring early warning of various threats, in particular biodiversity (in particular as part of the new division of the new DEWA - Division of Early Warning and Assessment), The use of GIS for the rational use of natural resources, specific studies, especially for French-speaking Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, Mediterranean, etc. In addition to the two centers mentioned above, the system includes another 12 centers in Brazil, Hungary, Georgia, Nepal, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Russia, USA, Thailand, Sweden and Japan. Their work is also on a global level, but to a certain extent specialized in the regions. For example, the Grid-Arendal Center (Norway) implements a number of arctic programs, such as amar-arctic monitoring and assessment program, the Baltic Sea region (Ballerina GIS projects for large environmental applications) etc. Unfortunately, the activities of the grid center - MOKOW Little is known for special authors. The information system of the European Economic Community Korinans (coordinated information on the environment in the European Community) deserves attention from the complicated interethnic cooperation to create large databases. The decision on its creation was taken in June 1985 by the Council of the European Community, which had previously faced the two main objectives: assessing the potential of the community information systems as a source to study the state of its natural environment and provide the EU environmental strategy for priority areas, including the protection of biotopes, the environmental assessment of the atmosphere based on local emissions and cross-border transfers, a comprehensive assessment of the environmental problems of the Mediterranean region. So far the project has been completed, but in the future there will be information about the possibilities of its distribution to the territory of Eastern European countries. Among the national projects I would of course like to mention examples in Russia, although it should immediately recognize its not the most progressive position in the world. Thus, at the beginning of the 90s, the possibilities to combine the possibilities of actively working the USSR as part of the GRID-UNEP-Global Resource System of the GRID UNEP became possible. We refer only to one of the initiatives of the time within the activities of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the Russian Federation - a draft state ECO information system (GEIS), the initial stage of which was developed in the former State Committee of the USSR. It was planned that Gais should consist of long-term databases; Databases obtained in Supreme experiments and control measurements (apparently temporary storage); The database of subsets of the data necessary for consumers of research and of an information network that connects the component of the system with the control centers of observation equipment and with the bases of other systems, including international ones. Gais' scope of application to the design of the designers has been divided into the following main categories: 1) environmental control (to determine the environment); 2) environmental monitoring (to analyze environmental changes); 3) modeling (for causal analysis). GAAs, in general, was a computer system in which the main source of information input is a detailed database of geographically oriented data in the state of the environment: images, operational control data, observation statistical data, statistical data from observation, episodes of maps (geological, soil, climatic , Vegetation, land use, infrastructure, etc.). Processing this information together is a direct route to environmental modeling. The main task of the planned Gais was to develop data management technology that combines environmental sentences that exist in a variety of formats and are taken from different sources. The data in the Gais should encounter the following subject areas: the geosphere (including the shells of the earth - the atmosphere, hydrosphere, a lithosphere, a biosphere) and technology; Material natural resources (energy, mineral, water, land, forest, etc.) as well as through their use; Climate change; the state of production technologies; Economic indicators in environmental management; Storage and recycling of waste; Social and biomedical indicators, etc., which of course are intended to allow for subsequent display synthesis. In some functions this program was similar to the technique used in the grid UNEP system. Regarding the federal level programs, the GIS GIS project (government authorities) should be mentioned, which was implemented at the regional level (see below) in real life or, for example, was converted to other needs, which were met by the federal target program "Electronic Russia" (2002 - 2010). As an example of integrated systems we show the development of the "sustainable development of Russia" [v.s.tikunov, 2002]. A feature of its structure is the close interlinking of the socially polytic, economic (production), natural and ecological blocks. In general, they characterize the socioecosystems of different territorial ranks. For all thematic principles, it is possible to characterize the hierarchy of their changes - from the global to the local level, taking into account the peculiarities of the presentation of phenomena in different scales of the display. Here, the principle of the Hyperming system is implemented here, if the PLAtz are connected, for example, by associative (semantic) ties, for example the parcels of a lower hierarchical level are not only shown thematic representation in the corresponding scale, but also as revealed switch it off, detail it. At the top level of the hierarchy, a section entitled "The Place and Role of Russia in Solving the Global Problems of Humanity" has been created. The world maps in this section are designed to show reserves and the balance of human production and consumption of major types of natural resources; Dynamics of population growth; Anthropogenic load index; The contribution of Russia and other countries to the planetary environmental situation and other anamorphoses, diagrams, graphs, explanatory text and tables should show the role of Russia in solving modern global problems of mankind. It is useful to compare the regions of Russia and foreign countries if they are viewed as a single information array. For these purposes, multidimensional ranks were used on the basis of complexes of comparable indicators, which, according to some integral characteristics, distribute Russian regions from the plain of Austria (Moscow) to Nicaragua (Republic of Tuva). One of these examples according to the public health characterization is shown in FIG. 24 col. incl. Here are the features of public health of the countries of the world and regions of Russia, but in the same way that the plots can be continued down to the municipal level. Sections at the federal level form the main core of the system. In addition to many original plots, a fairly complete characteristic of all components of the Nature-Economy-Population system is given, with an emphasis on the nature of the changes that have occurred. The blocks are expressed through integrated estimates of the socio-demographic stability, the stability of the economic development of the economy, the stability of the natural environment up to anthropogenic effects and their other generalization laws and the quantitative quantitative quantitative. As integral characteristics, a sustainable economic welfare index and a human development index, as well as an environmental impact index, real progress, live planet, "ecological footprint", etc. [indicators, 2001] is widely known. But even in relation to private land, not to mention the complex characteristics, the task is not simply to show the actual state, but to emphasize the patterns in the development of phenomena, to display them from different angles. As an example, we indicate the characteristics of the election campaigns carried out in Russia in Russia since 1991. In addition to traditional principles that reflect the winners in chosen campaigns and the percentage of votes submitted by a candidate or party, the built-in manageability industries of manageability of territories [V.SS Botikunov, D.D. ODeshkin, 2000] and the nature of their changes from one election campaign to another (Fig. 2 cv. On). Another example of an unconventional approach is to combine typological and evaluation features, e.g. B. the assessment of the public health assessment with types of causes of mortality in the population (Fig. 26 col. Incl.). The next hierarchically lower section of the system is the block "Model of the transition of the regions of Russia to sustainable development". As in other sections of the atlas, the main content of all branches of this block is aimed at determining the environmental, economic and social components of sustainable development of the territories. Here are examples of the characteristics of the Baikal region, the Irkutsk region, the Irkutsk administrative district and Irkutsk. With the characteristics of the region, it is analyzed on the one hand as an integral part of the size formation - the state, on the other hand as self-sufficient (within certain limits), the integrity capable of developing itself on available resources. On the basis of the maps drawn up, it is planned to develop proposals for the development strategy and innovation activities of the region and its territories. The typology of all regions of Russia was carried out, and typical representatives of different groups (industrial, agricultural, etc.) were revealed.It is planned to create several regional branches of the system, representing different types of areas in the country, particularly for the Khanty Mansi Autonomous District. Attention should be paid to the principle of the blockage of the system, since individual logical blocks can be modified, filled in or expanded without changing the structure of the entire system. The subject connected with sustainable development inevitably requires consideration of almost all thematic scenes in the dynamics, which are implemented in the satin information system according to the principle of evolution and dynamics. These are mainly properties of phenomena for fundamental times or years. For a number of parcels for retrospective analysis, several thematic animations were developed: "Changes in the distribution and forestry of the regions of Russia in the past 300 years", "Growth of the network of cities of Russia", "Dynamics of the density of the population of Russia, 1678 -2011, "" the development of the metallurgical industry of Russia in centuries XVIII-XX. "And" the development of the railway network (growth and electrification), XIX-XX centuries, "representing the first stage of preparation of integrated animation" development of Representing industry and transport "Russia". The main application of the system is the development of scenarios for the development of the country and its regions. The case is implemented through the principle of multivariates, when the end user has a range of interest for his solutions, such as optimistic, pessimistic and other scenarios, is suggested, and the more difficult this scenario en, the more urgent the need for systems updating is, when the expert systems and the use of neural networks help in great difficulty, often with a considerable fuzziness of tasks in order to obtain acceptable results. Apply a meaningful modeling of the complex phenomena within the information system. The basis of such modeling is a comprehensive systemic approach to modeling socioecosystems. So the user of the system can simulate a different structure, the board of directors shows options that will lead, for example, to an increase in the wealth of the people or an increase in his public health as the end result for many transformations with the assessment of the costs required to achieve the Result. Simulation means are developed, mainly aimed at developing different scenarios of the transition of the regions of the country to the models of their sustainable development. The final stage of the project related to the intellectualization of the entire system allows a full-scale decision-making system to be formed. Finally, it should be noted that the malleable system should be based on the principle of multimedia (multiple sizes), which will facilitate the decision-making process. The creation of regional GEO information systems in Russia is largely due to the implementation of the GIS GIS program (State Authorities) and the CTCPR (Integrated Territorial Inventory of Natural Resources). The development of the basic provisions within the framework of the GIS program program was assigned to the state center "Nature" - the company of the Federal Surveying Service and cartography (pink cartography). In some subjects of the Russian Federation, regional information and analytical centers have been created and functioning using modern computer technologies, including GIS technologies. Among the regions where the main results obtained in the creation of GIS GIS - Perm and Irkutsk regions. 1995-1996. Significant work has been done to create GIs of the Novosibirsk region. The most worked project in the field of regional GIS for the OGM is undoubtedly implemented in the Perm region at the moment. "The concept of this system ensures the use of geo-information technologies in the structural departments of the regional administration and in the structural departments of the state authorities of the Russian Federation operating in the territory of the Perm region. In the stage of development, the concept became Considered by the Federal Survey and Cartography of the Russian Federation as well as the State Georgation Center and the State Center "Nature" - Agreement, was concluded between the Administration of the Perm Region and the Federal Surveys and Cartography of Russia To create a geographic information system of the Perm region, which is used to create and update topographic maps of 1: 1000,000 and 1: 200,000 in the region. The concept of the geographic information system was determined: main directions of the creation of GIS; composition of GIS users; requirements for databases; regulatory framework ; GIS developer, En stages of development, priority projects, sources of funding. The main directions of the GIS-COO tweets The instructions of the management activities of the authorities of the region: Socio-economic development; Economics and finance; Ecology, resources and environmental management; Transportation and communication; Community services and construction; Agriculture; . Health, education and culture; Public order, defense and security; Socio-political development. Of course, a large place in the development of the regional system is occupied by the project of digital cartographic base. The concept ensures the application of the maps: 1: 1000,000 survey and topographic map in the territory of the TERM region and the territory connected to it; Topographic map scale 1: 200,000 per territory of the region; Geological map scale 1: 200,000; Topographic maps for the territories of land and woodland, shipping flows over 1: 100,000, 1: 50,000, 1: 25,000, 1: 10,000; To solve engineering tasks and tasks from urban economy cards and plans on a scale of 1: 5000, 1: 2000, 1: 500. For maps, the coordinate system of 1942 in the coordinate system of 1963 or in the local coordinate system was assumed, if switched on in the GIS region, the area is specified in a uniform coordinate system. For digital topographic maps the Roskarota1Rephian Uni_VGM classifier is used, which offers the possibility to work with symbols of conventional signs from 1: 500 to the scale 1: 1000000 (all-scale classifier). The range of software used is quite wide: the LARIS project is carried out with the Intergraph SIGR software. Geological maps are created in GIS "Park". Solutions for the choice of software were determined by the presence of housed tasks in various departmental GIs and recognized industry decisions. The digital map formats used were determined by the GIS software used. However, it does indicate that you need to use the digital map converter to convert digital maps from one format to another in order to provide information in different GIS packages. In November 1998, digital maps of the Permian region of the scale range 1: 1000,000 and 1: 200,000 were broadcast in the region, the main format of the received F20V maps. Maps are converted to the E00 format used in GIS, ESRI Inc. The information saturation of the maps created by Roskartograph did not correspond to the developers of the regional GIs. In the first phase, the system developers pay great attention to their increase, filling the semantics of the maps and territorial binding of the available and newly created thematic databases. Several pilot projects were carried out in the creation of GIs: The creation of an integrated GIS village and the resort "Ust-Kachka" to work out comprehensive solutions in a small area, in the example GIS "Ust-Kachk" to demonstrate the possibilities of G # not enough to prepare leaders; Create a flood model for the cities of Perm and Kungur. To create a flood model, a matrix of the heights of the potential flood zone was built, calculations were made to model the degree of flooding; Development of the environmental control of the pilot projects of GIS for the city of Berezniki and the adjacent territories. The main results of the implementation of the program are presented by the authors of the concept V.l. chebinkin, yu. B. Shcherbinin in the form of the following subsystems (components): "GIS geology". It is created for the actual geological and economic assessment of the resource potential of the Perm region, the development of solutions for the efficient use of resources. Includes a geodatab bank on mineral deposits, the placement of mining and consumption companies, the number of reserves, the dynamics of mining and consumption; GIS Land Cadastre. Provides conditions for target tax collection on land and compliance with regulatory and legal acts on possession, use, change of ownership. Contains a geodatab bank on the boundaries of the property in the context of land ownership and the register of owners; "GIS Roads". Enables the determination and efficient use of technical and economic conditions for the operation and development of the transport road network. It is based on a geodatance bank over the roads of the Perm region, as cover, technical condition of roads, technical features of bridges, trips, trains, ferries and ice crossings, road signs. Contains the basis of economic data on the use of roads for freight and passenger traffic, the cost of maintaining roads, as well as the property registers and liability limits; "GIS Railways". Allows the determination and efficient use of technical and economic conditions for the operation and development of the transport rail network. Contains a geodatab bank on the railways of the TERM region, railway bridges and the relocation, train stations, platforms, facilities and the basis for the use of roads for freight and passenger traffic, the road salary; "GIS River Landing." Provides information on the calculations of the work of excavators to deepen the river beds and calculations on efficiency and development of shipping. Information support - Geographical indications to facilitate the relief of the shipping rivers and the database on river cargo and people migrations; . "GIS Floods". Provides the process of modeling the roles of rivers and performing the calculations of anti-phase measures, the losses from floods, provides the information necessary for the operation of anti-phase commissions. Information base - geodata on the terrain of the banks of the rivers; GIS hydraulic constructions. It is used to simulate the consequences of human impacts on the water bodies of the population and businesses. Geo database - information on dams, gateways, water inlets, sewage systems and sewage of liquid waste from industrial companies, information bases of technical and economic data on Hydrocaffiers; "GIS Water Management". It is created for objective assessment and planning of the use of water resources in the area. Geodain Bank contains information on rivers, reservoirs, lakes, swamps, water protection zones and coastal defenses, as well as information on length, space, stocks and water resources, characterization of fish stocks, property registers and liability limits; "GIS forestry". We are interested in an objective assessment and planning of the use of forest resources in the region. This activity is based on information on forest areas, rocks and the age of the forest, its economic valuation, cutting, processing, processing, forest sale, the location of refining and processing companies, property rights and liability limits; "GIS Catastre Natural Resources." Combines the information of the components of GIS geology, GIS forestry, GIS water management as well as fisheries, reserves, hunting and other fisheries, binds the geobase of these components, creates an information base of a comprehensive assessment of the natural resources of the Perm region; "GIS ecology". It is created to develop measures to improve the environmental situation, requiring the definition of the appropriate amounts for the implementation of these events; "GIS specially protected natural areas." Geodatab Bank on specially protected natural areas in the region; "GIS Ecoatology". Geospatial database on the effects of the environmental situation on the health and mortality of the population, which makes it possible to provide an objective assessment of the living conditions of the population conditions in the region; "GIS Oil and Gas Pipelines". Used to simulate and assess the impact of emergency situations, economic settlements. Geodata Bank contains information on oil and gas pipelines, pumping stations and other engineering facilities in the area, the register of owners, ownership and limits of responsibility, Geodalbank on the facilitation of neighboring territories, information bases of technical economic characteristics; GIS control and modeling of natural and technological manifestations of catastrophic deformations of the Earth's surface of the Permian region based on the results of monitoring, including space; "GIS Population". Geodatabases for the disposal of civil protection that allow an analysis of the territory in old age, calling age, employment, socially protected groups, population migration, necessary to be required by social programs, as well as information support of the chosen Campaigns (the formation of constituencies and analysis of the electorate); "GIS ATC". Divided into components: "GIs Fire Protection"; "GIS traffic police"; "GIS Social Security"; "GIS EFS". Bases are created: potentially dangerous objects, tactical and technical characteristics of these facilities, forces and means of civil defense, as well as the attracted forces and funds of the regional subsystem of emergency situations, tactical and technical characteristics of forces and means; The basis of the spatial data location of the evacuation zones and routes for companies and the population of the region, information bases of the tactical and technical properties of zones and evacuation routes; "GIS Medicine Catastrophe". In particular, it creates the geobasis of the displacement and information base of the state of medical institutions; "GIS to ensure the safety of the vital activity of the population." Geobaza observation posts of potentially dangerous objects, relief geobase and other area features on the scale necessary to carry out the tasks of modeling emergency situations in observation facilities and adjacent areas, information bases of tactical and technical data for the organization of work and registration of work required by Observation contributions; "GIS Social and Economic Development of the Region." It is necessary to analyze the activities of local governments, their comparisons with similar ones in the adjacent areas, both at the moment and in the dynamics of the process of collecting information by statistical accounting authorities. In addition, this component is used to develop territory management activities. The Geobaise GIS of Socio-Economic Development of the Region contains information on the administrative department of the region, on the passports of the territories, the base of the Perm Regional Committee of State Statistics in relation to the state of socio-economic development, and The main government of the regional administrative economy in relation to the forecast of the socio-economic development. As a result of the implementation of the program, legal, economic, organizational and technical measures to perform the tasks of creating GIS-ECMs should be developed, and the databases of digital maps of the Permian range of various scale are trained to the dynamics of socio-economic development of the Region. The area management structures are provided with real spatio-temporal information on the infrastructure and social development of the region, which makes it possible to form a mechanism for the management of the region's economy on geo-information. The developed concept of the geographical information system and the GIS creation program is based on considerable experience in companies and organizations of the Perm region in this field of activity. Various projects are carried out in the Committee of the Landkadastre of the Perm Region, the Perm State Georgot State Geographic Enterprise, the Committee of the Natural Resources of the Perm Region, the Research Clinic Institute of Children's Ecoatology, and other organizations. Under the leadership of the Landkadastre Committee of the Perm Region, the work is to carry out a catastrophe filming, the preparation of planned cartographic materials, land inventory, registration of owners on the earth. The customer of the state, automated Land Cadastre System in the Perm region (Gas ZK) is the Landkadastre Region Committee. In Oblomzem and Goriyomzem special working groups for the operational management of the Laris project have been created. In the unified state enterprise "Ural Design and Survey Enterprise of Land Catastral Filming" (Uralzazkadastrikka) created the specialized production based on digital cadastral technologies.GIS is used by Intergraph Weary. As well as MicroStation, Mapnnfo Professional. The permanent geological Geocarta Enterprise carries out work under the state geological mapping program. For each part of the company, the duty is set on one or two sheets of nomenclature of the Permian range on the scale of 1: 200,000, the results of the work are made in graphic and digital form. The enterprise uses GIS "Geock", which offers technology for creating digital maps as well as Arclnfo, ArcView, Park 6.0. In digital form, the following geological documents were created: a geological map of hearth solidarity formations, based on the materials of discouragement and preparation of the state geological map on the scale of 1: 200,000. Geological map of the quaternary deposits. Scheme of geomorphological zoning. Map of productive oil and gas structures. Administrative department scheme with transport routes and trunk communication. The map of the daughter-solid formations is supplemented by historical information: on copper, gland, chromites, bauxes, mangsen, titanium, lead, strontium, gold; 'By building materials (gabbro diabases, limestone, dolomites, marbles, sandstones), quartz, fluorite, Volkonski-Ihe; Oil, gas, coal, potash salts, drinking water. A map of quaternary deposits reflects the distribution through objects of objects with content: gold, platinum, diamonds; Agrorud (peat, limestone tuff, marl), clay, sandbacker mixes, sands and others. According to the disposal of the Governor of the Perm Region from 11/9/95 No. 338 "on the environmental monitoring system in the region" under the leadership of the Natural Resource Committee of the Perm region (previously state-run the Environmental Protection Committee) to establish a unified territorial environmental monitoring system (Etsem ) to create. The ETCEM is created for the information support for the provision of management decisions in the field of environmental protection in order to ensure environmentally friendly sustainable development of the territory and is an essential part of the information and geographical information system of the Perm region. The work on the creation and maintenance of GIS Health Care is carried out by the Research Clinic Institute of Children's Emotion (Niki Dep). At the regional level, the use of GIS to solve the problems of information support for the health management system of the region is to solve the territories with unfavorable trends in medical and demographic and environmental indicators. Justification of regional investments in territorial health care based on geo-information analysis of medical and complex indicators (both separate and complex); Analysis of the adequacy of medical services to the population in relation to territories and assessment of the acute problems of each territory; Establishment and placement of the network of inter-district centers for the provision of specialized medical care, etc. Work to link the spatial information and database for medical care, medical and demographic, sanitary and environmental indicators on a single map system of the Perm region. Information gathered in more than 260 indicators. The system uses small vector map diagrams (1: 1000000). The software allows you to play a number of scenarios and the choice of options for making the most of a Kainy fund and the laboratory and diagnostic base of therapeutic and preventive institutions. In order to solve medical and environmental problems with GIS, priority areas are allocated for the combination of risk factors for public health and individual environmental indicators, a spatial binding of multi-annual databases for the sources of harmful effects on the environment has been carried out. The environmental project was implemented in the composition of the Municipal Gis Perm, part of the regional GIs. On the basis of the vector map, 1:25 000 layers were drawn: the incidence of the population in the districts of the city of Perm, the zones of actions of therapeutic and preventive institutions. The system allows you to follow the dynamics of morbidity over the past 6 years up to 68 indicators. As part of the project, layers are formed that reflect different aspects of the environment (soil pollution zone with heavy metals, the content of harmful substances in the atmospheric air, based on the results of inventive observations, stationary emission sources of the pollutants in atmospheric air With the detailed characteristics of each source, Earth level of industrial enterprises with information about the enterprise as a pollution source of the natural environment, the content of harmful impurities in the biological environments of the child population, etc.). Layers with a saturated attribute base are used in analytical tasks. The created system gives a solution for the solution of the tasks to form the optimal network of placing atmospheric air quality controls on the criteria for public health, the development of medical and environmental rehabilitation programs, etc. The ecological project of the municipal GIs is created on the basis of ArcView. GIS is used in conjunction with modeling and analysis programs, which makes it possible to obtain comprehensive assessments of different territorial levels. 1994-1997. Niki Dep issued the Medical and Ecological Atlas of the Perm region. 1998 is the Niki with the regional center for new information technologies of the Perm State Technical University and the department of education and science of the region Administration ATLAS of the social and educational sphere of the Perm region (a pilot project in the region under the inter-university scientific and technical program " Development of the scientific basis for the creation of geographic information systems "). By the decision of the Legislative Assembly of 04/06/98 No. 78, a comprehensive territorial program "Life safety and the organization of surveillance systems for the forecast of natural and natural and technological emergencies in the territory of the Perm Region for 1998-2000", Provider: Development and Improvement of the geographical information systems, alerts and actions in emergency situations (GIS EFS); 2. Creation of a subsystem of actions in the conditions of emergency situations as part of the geographical information system of the ATC of the Perm region. The geographic information system of emergencies is based on the Scientific Mining Institute of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (G. Permian). Development of "technical requirements for digital topographic maps of the scale 1: 1000,000 and 1: 200,000 on the territory of the Perm region", "Methods for testing the quality of digital topographic maps of the scale 1: 1000,000 and 1: 200,000 on the Territory of the Perm Region ", work on the control The qualities and acceptance of this digital cargo are carried out by the Perm State Unity Enterprise" Special Research Bureau "Elbrus" (Snib "Elbrus"). Snor "Elbrus" is a holder of digital topographic maps of the specified scale and carries out work on the implementation of maps in accordance with the "temporary position of the method of using digital electronic maps of the Permian scale of 1: 1000 000 and 1. 200,000 ". Snibe" Elbrus "uses several GIS software tools: IntelKart, Intel, Panorama, GIS RSCH, Mapnfo Professional, ArcView, Arclnfo and other GUP Snib" Elbrus "runs a single classifier of cartographic information for the entire large range of GIS OGV An The Perm Region has developed a converter system to ensure the compatibility of the application of maps in different GIS software. At the Geographical Faculty of the Perm State University, GIS "Protected Natural Areas of the Perm Region" is being developed; The work is in progress, thematic physical-geographical, socio-economic and ecological and geographical layers (hydrography, orography, geomorphology, soil, vegetation, climate, settlements, transport network, industry, agriculture, production and social infrastructure, etc.) Irkutsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Ryazan regions own systems , Primorsky Krai, etc. There are quite a number of examples of the implementi eration of GIS at the local level. As part of the UBSU-NUR program, a geographic information system was created for the features of the reserves and age dynamics of the stand in the forests of the UBSU nurst bowl, for the complex features of the venue of the summer training practices of the Moscow State University's Faculty of Geography , GIS Satino and others were developed. The last system is essentially a comprehensive digital model of the territory of the Satino training garbage dump (Borovsky district of Kaluga region) (Yu.f. KniTnikov, IK Lurie, 2002). Basic Base Layers - Photographs and Topographical Map Area 1: 5000 and 1: 10000. These field student studies are widely used. Geographic information funds are recruited as systematic records on the properties and relationships of geographic objects and processes in the area. To study the dynamic states of the natural geosystem, various temporary and large planes are used - perennial (high-end maps, aero and space photographs, materials with perennial field surveys of the landfill), as well as seasonal (mainly aerospace and special landscape and fenological studies). Developed decinitive navigating complex for automated field research. You can also bring examples of systems that are being created to control the environmental situation within a separate chemical plant etc. from the implemented or currently implemented projects. We also point out numerous examples of sectoral GIS technologies on various thematic areas - geology, Landkadastre, forestry industries, ecology, communal management, operation of engineering communication, activities of performance structures. They are discussed in detail in the book [E. Kapralov, A. V. Koshkarev, V.S. Tikunov et al., 2004]. Control questions What role is the role of the GRID Global Information and Resource Database? What is the main feature of the grid system? Are Russian projects with international techniques agreed? Is such an agreement appropriate? Describe the characteristics of the planned ECO information system of the planned state; Is the implementation of this project in modern conditions approved? List the main features of sustainable development of Russia. Assess the optimality of the system created for the Perm region. Is it worth building local systems? Prepare a plan for a possible geospatial information project for its area.
Remote acquisition data provides vital information that helps monitor various applications such as merging images, detecting changes, and classifying earth cover. Space snapshots are a key method used to obtain information about earthly resources and the environment.
The popular data of satellite snapshots includes the fact that they can be easily accessed on various cartographic applications. These applications, able to find the right address, helped the GIS community in project planning, monitoring natural disasters in many areas in our lives.
Terracloud provides access to the database of high-purity space images of the permissions you need from satellites of the Russian Federation in one window online and around the clock and from anywhere in the world. And with favorable order conditions.
The main aspect that affects the accuracy of the ground object is spatial resolution. The temporary resolution helps in the creation of earth protection maps for environmental planning, recognizing changes in land use and transport planning.
The data integration and analysis of urban areas with medium resolution remote capture images are mainly focused on the documenting settlements or are used to distinguish between residential, commercial and industrial zones.
Providing a basemap for graphical references and support for planners and engineers
The number of parts that the ortho formation creates with high resolution satellite imagery is of great importance. There it offers a detailed picture of the selected area together with the surrounding areas.
Because maps are based on location, they're specifically designed to carry highly structured data and create a complete picture of the highlight you need. There are numerous uses for satellite imagery and remote sensing data.
Today, countries use information gleaned from satellite imagery to make government decisions, civil defense operations, police and geographic information systems (GIS) as a whole. Nowadays dates were with satellite imagesMandatory and all government projects must be presented on the basis of satellite data.
In the preliminary and fertilization stages of intelligence minerals, it is important to learn about the potential benefits of mineral resources that are being considered for mining.
In such scenarios, the mapping relies on remote sensing from a satellite and its integration with the GIS platform to make it easy for geologists to create a time-saving map of mineral potential zones. With the help of the spectral analysis of satellite image bands, a scientist can quickly determine and display the mineral accessibility with special indicators.
This enables the Geologist-Intelligence-Geologists to do geochemical and test drill supports in zones of high potential.
The outcome of a natural disaster can be destructive and sometimes difficult to assess. However, for rescuers, the disaster risk assessment is required. This information needs to be created and executed quickly and accurately.
Classifying images based on objects using changes to the detection (before and after the event) is a quick way to get damage assessment data. Other similar uses of satellite imagery in disaster estimates include building shadow measurements and digital surface models.
With the growth of people around the world and the need to increase agricultural production, there is some degree of proper management of global agricultural resources.
In this case, reliable data is first of all necessary, not only to obtain the types, but also to determine the quality, quantity and location of these resources. Satellite imagery and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) always remain an important factor in enhancing existing systems for collecting and generating agricultural and resource data.
Agricultural mapping and surveys are currently held around the world to collect information and statistics on agricultural crops, grazing land, domestic livestock, and other related agricultural resources.
The information gathered is necessary to implement effective management decisions. The agricultural survey is necessary in order to plan and distribute limited resources between different branches of the economy.
3D models of cities- These are digital models of urban areas that represent the surfaces of the terrain, parcels, buildings, vegetation, infrastructure and landscape elements, as well as related objects belonging to urban areas.
Your components are described and represented with relevant two-dimensional and three-dimensional spatial data and data with geographic connection. Three-dimensional city model support presentation, research, analysis and management of tasks in a variety of different applications.
3D GIS is a fast and efficient solution for large and remote locations where manual shooting is almost impossible. Various urban and rural planning departments need 3D GIS data, such as drainage, sewage,
Water supply, sewer design and much more.
And finally a few words. Satellite snapshots are just needed in our time. Your accuracy is not of all questions - yet everything is visible on the top. The main thing is the relevance of the images and the opportunity to get a snapshot of that area of the area - what you really need. Sometimes it helps to solve really important questions.
N. B. YALDYGIN.
The last few years have been noted by the rapid development and diffusion of technologies (ZZZ) and geo-information technologies. Space snapshots are actively used as a source of information to solve problems in various areas of activity: cartography, local government, forestry and agriculture, water management, inventory and monitoring of oil and gas real estate infrastructure facilities, environmental status assessment, search and forecast deposits minerals and other geographic information systems (GIS) and GeoPortals are used to analyze data to make management decisions.
As a result, the task of actively introducing DZZ and GIS technologies in the educational process and academic activity has become very relevant for many higher education institutions.Previously, the use of these technologies was required, initially universities that practice training specialists in fieldogrammetry and GIs. Gradually, however, with the integration of rejection technologies and GIs with different adjoining areas of activity, their study is offered to a much broader specialist. Universities that are training in specialties related to forestry and agriculture, ecology, construction, etc. is also required to train students with the fundamentals of JES and GIS so that future graduates become familiar with the advanced methods of solving the applied tasks inside are their specialty.
In the initial phase, an educational institution studying the learning structures of DZZ and GIS, a number of problems should be solved:
- Acquire specialized software and hardware.
- Acquire a set of DZZ data that will be used to learn and maintain the academic work.
- Retraining teacher for DZZ and GIS.
- Develop development technologies that will solve applied tasks and appropriate specialist / departmental specializations with DCZ data.
Without a thoughtful and systematic approach, these issues may require significant temporary and substantial costs to the university. The easiest and most effective way to overcome difficulties is to interact with the delivery of all necessary software and hardware devices for the introduction of DZZ and GIS technologies, having experience with experience of projects for different sectors of the national economy.
A comprehensive approach to the introduction of DZZ and GIS technologies at the university will be provided by a Sovzond company that offers a complete range of services, ranging from the supply of software and hardware, installing them and settings and with the supply of DZZ -Data ends, training specialists and developing technological solutions. The basis of the proposed solution is the Earth Remote Sensing Processing Center (CodRug).
What is coddzz?
This is a set of software and hardware and technologies designed to obtain, process and analyze DZZ data using geospatial information. CodRug allows you to solve the following main tasks:
- Obtaining DZP (Space Shots) data.
- Primary treatment of room shots, preparation for automated and interactive decryption and visual representation.
- A deep automated analysis of DZZ data to prepare a wide range of analytical cartographic materials on various subjects that identify a wide variety of statistical parameters.
- Preparation of analytical reports, presentation materials on the space shooting database.
The key component of the central dzoddz is special software and hardware that has the broad functional functions for working with DZP and GIS data.
Software in the composition of the Central Committee should perform the following works:
Photogrammetric processing of DZZ data (geometric image correction, digital construction of digital relief models, creation of mosaic images, etc.). It is a necessary step in the general technological cycle of processing and analyzing the DZZ data that provides a user with accurate and relevant information.
Thematic processing of DZZ data (thematic decoding, spectral analysis, etc.).It provides decryption and analysis of cosmic rotating materials for the purpose of creating thematic maps and plans that make administrative decisions.
GIS analysis and mapping (spatial and statistical analysis of data, preparing maps, etc.).Provides identification of patterns, relationships, trends in events and phenomena in the surrounding world, as well as creating maps for creating maps for presenting results in a user-friendly result.
Providing access to gospatial information via the Internet and the intranet (data storage, creation network.-Service with GIS analysis functions for users of internal and external networks).It sees the organization of users by users from the internal network and the Internet to provide information on a specific topic in a specific territory (satellite images, vector maps, attribute information).
On the tab. 1 shows the scheme of using software proposed by the SOVZOND company, which allows you to fully implement all kinds of work.
Table 1. Software usage scheme
Kind of work
|Photogrammetric data processing DZZ||Inpho line from Trimble Inpho||Automated aerotriangulation for all types of staff shooting obtained from both analog and digital cameras |
High-precision digital auxiliary models (CMR) on the aero or space survey, quality control and editing of CMR
Ortotransformation of DZZ data
Creating color-gradient mosaic coatings with images obtained from different satellites
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